How to format your references using the Clinical Research in Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Research in Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McLeish T (2002) Chemistry. Polymers without beginning or end. Science 297:2005–2006
A journal article with 2 authors
Karpowich NK, Wang D-N (2008) Structural biology. Symmetric transporters for asymmetric transport. Science 321:781–782
A journal article with 3 authors
Willner AE, Wang J, Huang H (2012) Applied physics. A different angle on light communications. Science 337:655–656
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Glickman SW, Rasiel EB, Hamilton CD, et al (2006) Medicine. A portfolio model of drug development for tuberculosis. Science 311:1246–1247

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Johansen GA, Jackson P (2005) Radioisotope Gauges for Industrial Process Measurements. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Giesy JP, Solomon KR (2014) Ecological Risk Assessment for Chlorpyrifos in Terrestrial and Aquatic Systems in the United States. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Eriksson N, Strandvik P (2009) Possible Determinants Affecting the Use of Mobile Tourism Services. In: Filipe J, Obaidat MS (eds) e-Business and Telecommunications: International Conference, ICETE 2008, Porto, Portugal, July 26-29, 2008, Revised Selected Papers. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 61–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Research in Cardiology.

Blog post
Carpineti A (2017) “Wow! Signal” Was Likely The Radio Emission Of A Comet. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2015) Environmental Satellites: Improvements Needed in NOAA’s Mitigation Strategies as It Prepares for Potential Satellite Coverage Gaps. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Landon SG (2015) The development of a transitional shelter program for homeless women: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2011) Letter of the Law 1, Proportion 0. New York Times SP4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Research in Cardiology
AbbreviationClin. Res. Cardiol.
ISSN (print)1861-0684
ISSN (online)1861-0692
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Other styles