How to format your references using the Clinical Research in Cardiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Research in Cardiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Petherick A (2010) Country by country. Nature 465:S10-1
A journal article with 2 authors
Danku Z, Kun F (2013) Creep rupture as a non-homogeneous Poissonian process. Sci Rep 3:2688
A journal article with 3 authors
Lavine M, Szuromi P, Coontz R (2011) Materials for grid energy. Electricity now and when. Introduction. Science 334:921
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Morris RV, Ruff SW, Gellert R, et al (2010) Identification of carbonate-rich outcrops on Mars by the Spirit rover. Science 329:421–424

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alexandrovna MI, Ionin BI, Tebby JC (2013) Alkynes in Cycloadditions. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Abrey LE, Chamberlain MC, Engelhard HH (2005) Leptomeningeal Metastases. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Balmer AS, Bulpin K, Molyneux-Hodgson S (2016) Bodies. In: Bulpin K, Molyneux-Hodgson S (eds) Synthetic Biology: A Sociology of Changing Practices. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London, pp 116–150

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Research in Cardiology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) A Bizarre New Flying Dinosaur, With Bat-Like Wings And Feathers. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) Forest Service Research and Development: Improvements in Delivery of Research Results Can Help Ensure That Benefits of Research Are Realized. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klimek DL (2008) Antigone’s reach: A feminine model for today’s businesswoman. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S (2013) Putin in Ukraine to Celebrate a Christian Anniversary. New York Times A4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Research in Cardiology
AbbreviationClin. Res. Cardiol.
ISSN (print)1861-0684
ISSN (online)1861-0692
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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