How to format your references using the Clinical Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stocum DL. Development. A tail of transdifferentiation. Science 2002;298(5600):1901–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Michael PJ, Cheadle MJ. Geochemistry. Making a crust. Science 2009;323(5917):1017–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rey PF, Coltice N, Flament N. Spreading continents kick-started plate tectonics. Nature 2014;513(7518):405–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Rad R, Rad L, Wang W, et al. PiggyBac transposon mutagenesis: a tool for cancer gene discovery in mice. Science 2010;330(6007):1104–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Müller B, Van de Voorde M. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology for Human Health. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2017.
An edited book
Micha DA, Burghardt I, editors. Quantum Dynamics of Complex Molecular Systems. vol. 83. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Fiori M, Lintas A, Mesrobian S, Villa AEP. Effect of Emotion and Personality on Deviation from Purely Rational Decision-Making. In: Guy TV, Karny M, Wolpert D, eds. Decision Making and Imperfection. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013;129–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Radiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Good Riddance To Thailand’s Infamous ‘Tiger Temple.’ IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Security: TSA Does Not Have Valid Evidence Supporting Most of the Revised Behavioral Indicators Used in Its Behavior Detection Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wuebbels PJ. Effectiveness of Reading and Writing Across the Curriculum on Middle School Reading Comprehension and Preparation for Common Core State Standards. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mcmasters K. The Nuclear Neighborhood. New York Times 2006:LI15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Radiology
AbbreviationClin. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0009-9260
ISSN (online)1365-229X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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