How to format your references using the Clinical Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Craik DJ. Chemistry. Seamless proteins tie up their loose ends. Science 2006;311(5767):1563–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Oliveira JG, Barabási A-L. Human dynamics: Darwin and Einstein correspondence patterns. Nature 2005;437(7063):1251.
A journal article with 3 authors
Scarola VW, Park K, Jain JK. Cooper instability of composite fermions. Nature 2000;406(6798):863–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ohtsuki H, Hauert C, Lieberman E, Nowak MA. A simple rule for the evolution of cooperation on graphs and social networks. Nature 2006;441(7092):502–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stokes G. A Practical Guide to the Wiring Regulations. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Nipkow T. Concrete Semantics: With Isabelle/HOL. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Terasaki H, Komizo Y-I. Direct Analysis of Solidification-Mode During Welding for the Assessment of Hot-Cracking. In: Kannengiesser T, Babu SS, Komizo Y-I, Ramirez AJ, eds. In-situ Studies with Photons, Neutrons and Electrons Scattering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010;77–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Radiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Measles Outbreak Hits New York City. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: FAA’s Modernization Investment Management Approach Could Be Strengthened. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Janairo B. Recovering Together: A Psychosocial Support Group for Young Adults with Schizophrenia and the People in Their Lives: A Grant Proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. The Region, a Primer. New York Times 2004:A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Radiology
AbbreviationClin. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0009-9260
ISSN (online)1365-229X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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