How to format your references using the Clinical Radiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Radiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Padma TV. India’s drug tests. Nature 2005;436(7050):485.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kueh HY, Mitchison TJ. Structural plasticity in actin and tubulin polymer dynamics. Science 2009;325(5943):960–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gorzelak P, Głuchowski E, Salamon MA. Reassessing the improbability of a muscular crinoid stem. Sci Rep 2014;4:6049.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kaya S, Schlesinger D, Yamamoto S, et al. Highly compressed two-dimensional form of water at ambient conditions. Sci Rep 2013;3:1074.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fong ACM, Hui SC. Multimedia Engineering. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2006.
An edited book
Karmakar S. Induction Motor Fault Diagnosis: Approach through Current Signature Analysis. Singapore: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
López Mazz JM. Archaeology of Historical Conflicts, Colonial Oppression, and Political Violence in Uruguay. In: González-Ruibal A, Moshenska G, eds. Ethics and the Archaeology of Violence. New York, NY: Springer; 2015;71–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Radiology.

Blog post
Davis J. Muscle Engineered To Respond To Light. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Business Continuity and Contingency Planning (Supersedes AIMD-10.1.19). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Toothaker RD. A phenomenological study of millennial students and traditional pedagogies. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander S. Golden Arms Tourney Continues a Quest. New York Times 2002:86.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Radiology
AbbreviationClin. Radiol.
ISSN (print)0009-9260
ISSN (online)1365-229X
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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