How to format your references using the Clinical Phytoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Phytoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Payne MR. Fisheries: climate change at the dinner table. Nature. 2013;497:320–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Pevzner P, Shamir R. Computing has changed biology--biology education must catch up. Science. 2009;325:541–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Parker JD, Burkepile DE, Hay ME. Opposing effects of native and exotic herbivores on plant invasions. Science. 2006;311:1459–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Vainchtein ID, Chin G, Cho FS, Kelley KW, Miller JG, Chien EC, et al. Astrocyte-derived interleukin-33 promotes microglial synapse engulfment and neural circuit development. Science. 2018;359:1269–73.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Reiher M, Wolf A. Relativistic Quantum Chemistry. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH; 2014.
An edited book
1. Omodeo EG, Policriti A, editors. Martin Davis on Computability, Computational Logic, and Mathematical Foundations. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Wong KCL, Summers R, Kebebew E, Yao J. Tumor Growth Prediction with Hyperelastic Biomechanical Model, Physiological Data Fusion, and Nonlinear Optimization. In: Golland P, Hata N, Barillot C, Hornegger J, Howe R, editors. Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention – MICCAI 2014: 17th International Conference, Boston, MA, USA, September 14-18, 2014, Proceedings, Part II. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 25–32.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Phytoscience.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Neanderthal Gene Cluster More Common in Europeans [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Coordination of Government Research and Development. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1976 Jul. Report No.: 094665.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Springborn T. The Importance of Teacher/Student Relationships [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Sisario B. Universal’s Deal for Prince’s Songwriting Rights May Bring a Wider Audience. New York Times. 2016 Nov 2;B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Phytoscience
ISSN (online)2199-1197

Other styles