How to format your references using the Clinical Phytoscience citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Phytoscience. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wand AJ. Biophysics: Enzymes surf the heat wave. Nature. 2015;517:149–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Insel TR, Sahakian BJ. Drug research: a plan for mental illness. Nature. 2012;483:269.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kim SF, Huri DA, Snyder SH. Inducible nitric oxide synthase binds, S-nitrosylates, and activates cyclooxygenase-2. Science. 2005;310:1966–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Livet J, Weissman TA, Kang H, Draft RW, Lu J, Bennis RA, et al. Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system. Nature. 2007;450:56–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wiesmann U, Choi IS, Dombrowski E-M. Fundamentals of Biological Wastewater Treatment. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2006.
An edited book
1. Calvo Lopez B, Peña E, editors. Patient-Specific Computational Modeling. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Appel C, Guerrero RG. Finding Common Ground in LSP: A Computer-Mediated Communication Project. In: Macià EA, Cervera AS, Ramos CR, editors. Information Technology in Languages for Specific Purposes: Issues and Prospects. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006. p. 75–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Phytoscience.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Researchers Achieve Record-Smashing Wireless Connection Speeds [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Opportunities for Improvement in the Administration of Technical Training Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973 Jun. Report No.: B-175773.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Brooks CE. Action research: Interventions for helping leaders use groups to affect conflict between workforce generations [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: The Democrats; Clinton Settles Into Theme Of Inclusion and Consensus. New York Times. 1992 Oct 24;19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Phytoscience
ISSN (online)2199-1197

Other styles