How to format your references using the Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carpenter S. Science careers. Carving a career in translational research. Science (2007); 317: 966–967.
A journal article with 2 authors
Zimbelman JR, Scheidt SP. Hesperian age for western Medusae Fossae Formation, Mars. Science (2012); 336: 1683.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jin F-F, Boucharel J, Lin I-I. Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones intensified by El Niño delivery of subsurface ocean heat. Nature (2014); 516: 82–85.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Maeda K, Teramura K, Lu D, et al. Photocatalyst releasing hydrogen from water. Nature (2006); 440: 295.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kanel GC. Pathology of Liver Diseases. 2017. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Mángano MG, Buatois LA, editors. The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events: Volume 1: Precambrian and Paleozoic. 2016. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Bürgisser P, Cucker F. Probabilistic Analysis of Rectangular Matrices. In: Condition: The Geometry of Numerical Algorithms (ed. Cucker F.) (2013); pp. 77–100. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging.

Blog post
Fang J. Monster Galaxies Gobble Smaller Neighbors to Bulk Up. IFLScience. 2014. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Better Management Controls and ADP Requirements Analysis Can Help NASA Lewis Research Center. 1984 Sep. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.Report No.: IMTEC-84-25.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Whitbeck DC. Mapping of Sonoran Desert vegetation communities of San Cristobal Valley and southern Sentinel Plains, Barry M. Goldwater Range and variables influencing route proliferation in the Barry M. Goldwater Range’s San Cristobal Valley [Doctoral dissertation]. 2013. University of Arizona, [Tucson, AZ].

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. A Retail Internship. New York Times (2010);E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carpenter 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Carpenter 2007, Zimbelman and Scheidt 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Zimbelman and Scheidt 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Maeda et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
ISSN (print)1475-0961
ISSN (online)1475-097X

Other styles