How to format your references using the Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Piattelli-Palmarini M. Grammar: the barest essentials. Nature (2002); 416: 129.
A journal article with 2 authors
Makova KD, Li W-H. Strong male-driven evolution of DNA sequences in humans and apes. Nature (2002); 416: 624–626.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pham TCT, Kim HS, Yoon KB. Growth of uniformly oriented silica MFI and BEA zeolite films on substrates. Science (2011); 334: 1533–1538.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mills EL, Pierce KA, Jedrychowski MP, et al. Accumulation of succinate controls activation of adipose tissue thermogenesis. Nature (2018); 560: 102–106.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Maidl B, Herrenknecht M, Maidl U, et al. Maschineller Tunnelbau im Schildvortrieb. 2011. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Renaud FG, Kuenzer C, editors. The Mekong Delta System: Interdisciplinary Analyses of a River Delta. 2012. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Saniei M. Human Embryo Research and Islamic Bioethics: A View from Iran. In: Human Medical Research: Ethical, Legal and Socio-Cultural Aspects (eds. Schildmann J., Sandow V., Rauprich O., et al.) (2012); pp. 29–41. Springer, Basel.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging.

Blog post
Fang J. Big-Headed Ants Grow Even Bigger When the Competition is Fierce. IFLScience. 2014. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transit Asset Management: Additional Research on Capital Investment Effects Could Help Transit Agencies Optimize Funding. 2013 Jul. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.Report No.: GAO-13-571.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Das A. Optimizing symbol timing, frequency spacing, and SNR estimation for communication systems [Doctoral dissertation]. 2013. University of California San Diego, [La Jolla, CA].

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky M. Best Neighborhoods for Night Workers. New York Times (2017);RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Piattelli-Palmarini 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Makova and Li 2002, Piattelli-Palmarini 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Makova and Li 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Mills et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
ISSN (print)1475-0961
ISSN (online)1475-097X

Other styles