How to format your references using the Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Watts C. Immunology. The bell tolls for phagosome maturation. Science (2004); 304: 976–977.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meister G, Tuschl T. Mechanisms of gene silencing by double-stranded RNA. Nature (2004); 431: 343–349.
A journal article with 3 authors
Alexander MH, Capecchi G, Werner H-J. Theoretical study of the validity of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation in the Cl + H2 --> HCl + H reaction. Science (2002); 296: 715–718.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Le Grand R, Mondloch CJ, Maurer D, et al. Neuroperception. Early visual experience and face processing. Nature (2001); 410: 890.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cheremisinoff NP. Industrial Gas Flaring Practices. 2013. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wannemacker SD, Vandercruysse S, Clarebout G, editors. Serious Games: The Challenge: ITEC/CIP and T 2011: Joint Conference of the Interdisciplinary Research Group on Technology, Education, and Communication, and the Scientific Network on Critical and Flexible Thinking Ghent, Belgium, October 19-21, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. 2012. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Yoshiuchi K. Momentary Measurement of Psychosocial Factors. In: Psychosocial Factors at Work in the Asia Pacific (eds. Dollard M. F., Shimazu A., Bin Nordin R., et al.) (2014); pp. 117–125. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging.

Blog post
Carpineti C. 2 Billion People Are Drinking Water Contaminated With Fecal Matter. IFLScience. 2017. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. GAO Reports Concerning Federal Student Financial Aid Programs. 1982 Feb. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.Report No.: 117445.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Harvey T. The Box [Doctoral dissertation]. 2014. Southern Illinois University, [Edwardsville, IL].

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bernstein N. Medicaid Shift Fuels Rush for Profitable Clients. New York Times (2014);A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Watts 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Meister and Tuschl 2004, Watts 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meister and Tuschl 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Le Grand et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
ISSN (print)1475-0961
ISSN (online)1475-097X

Other styles