How to format your references using the Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burnell JB. Astronomy. Pulsars 40 years on. Science (2007); 318: 579–581.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brainard MS, Doupe AJ. What songbirds teach us about learning. Nature (2002); 417: 351–358.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kasting JF, Catling DC, Zahnle K. Atmospheric oxygenation and volcanism. Nature (2012); 487: E1; discussion E2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Saal AE, Hauri EH, Langmuir CH, et al. Vapour undersaturation in primitive mid-ocean-ridge basalt and the volatile content of Earth’s upper mantle. Nature (2002); 419: 451–455.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Equipment Testing Procedures Committee. Centrifugal Pumps (Newtonian Liquids). 2002. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Vallecillo A, Gray J, Pierantonio A, editors. Theory and Practice of Model Transformations: First International Conference, ICMT 2008, Zürich, Switzerland, July 1-2, 2008 Proceedings. 2008. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Mailafiya DM. Agrobiodiversity for Biological Pest Control in Sub-Saharan Africa. In: Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 18 (ed. Lichtfouse E.) (2015); pp. 107–143. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging.

Blog post
Andrews R. This Awkward Feathered Dinosaur Was Almost Blown Up By Dynamite. IFLScience. 2016. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. COMPETES Reauthorization Act: Federal Loan Guarantees for Innovative Technologies in Manufacturing. 2013 Jul. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.Report No.: GAO-13-717R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Maloney JL. Analyzing Students’ Personal Characteristics to Determine Study Outcomes [Doctoral dissertation]. 2015. Lindenwood University, [ St. Charles, MO].

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. For the Chief Justice, a Dissent and a Line in the Sand. New York Times (2007);WK12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Burnell 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Brainard and Doupe 2002, Burnell 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brainard and Doupe 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Saal et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
ISSN (print)1475-0961
ISSN (online)1475-097X

Other styles