How to format your references using the Clinical Otolaryngology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Otolaryngology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weeds A. (2013) Hugh Huxley (1924-2013). Nature 500, 530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Long P. & Corfas G. (2014) Neuroscience. To learn is to myelinate. Science 346, 298–299.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wolfsberg T.G., McEntyre J. & Schuler G.D. (2001) Guide to the draft human genome. Nature 409, 824–826.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Hughen K.A., Eglinton T.I., Xu L., et al. (2004) Abrupt tropical vegetation response to rapid climate changes. Science 304, 1955–1959.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anderson J.B. (2017) Bandwidth Efficient Coding John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hildt E. & Franke A.G. (eds.) (2013) Cognitive Enhancement: An Interdisciplinary Perspective Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Tirri K. (2016) The Core of School Pedagogy. In Miracle of Education: The Principles and Practices of Teaching and Learning in Finnish Schools (Second Revised Edition) (Niemi H., Toom A., & Kallioniemi A., eds.), pp. 57–68. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Otolaryngology.

Blog post
Andrew E. (2015) Flowers Pose A Health Risk For Bees. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2004) Telecommunications: Wire-Based Competition Benefited Consumers In Selected Markets U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Venegas Carro G.I. (2017) The Slow Movements of Anton Bruckner’s Symphonies: Dialogical Perspectives. .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
de la MERCED M.J. (2017) Activist Fund Pushes Nestlé For Shake-Up. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Otolaryngology
AbbreviationClin. Otolaryngol.
ISSN (print)1749-4478
ISSN (online)1749-4486

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