How to format your references using the Clinical Otolaryngology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Otolaryngology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stainier D.Y.R. (2005) No organ left behind: tales of gut development and evolution. Science 307, 1902–1904.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yedid G. & Bell G. (2002) Macroevolution simulated with autonomously replicating computer programs. Nature 420, 810–812.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chan P., Curtis R.A. & Warwicker J. (2013) Soluble expression of proteins correlates with a lack of positively-charged surface. Sci. Rep. 3, 3333.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Soares L.M.M., Zanier K., Mackereth C., et al. (2006) Intron removal requires proofreading of U2AF/3’ splice site recognition by DEK. Science 312, 1961–1965.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sue D.W. (2003) Overcoming Our Racism John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Tjoa A.M., Quirchmayr G., You I., et al. (eds.) (2011) Availability, Reliability and Security for Business, Enterprise and Health Information Systems: IFIP WG 8.4/8.9 International Cross Domain Conference and Workshop, ARES 2011, Vienna, Austria, August 22-26, 2011. Proceedings Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Lipscombe L. (2011) Insulin, Insulin Resistance, and Cancer Associations. In Insulin Resistance and Cancer: Epidemiology, Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications (Fantus I.G., ed.), pp. 111–140. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Otolaryngology.

Blog post
Andrew D. (2016) Dusty Plasma In The Universe And In The Laboratory. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Northeast Rail Corridor: Information on Users, Funding Sources, and Expenditures U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rafibakhsh N. (2013) Industrial Applications of Microsoft Xbox Kinect Sensor. .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Plumer B. (2017) Meeting Climate Goals Was Always Hard. Without the U.S., It’s Far Harder. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Otolaryngology
AbbreviationClin. Otolaryngol.
ISSN (print)1749-4478
ISSN (online)1749-4486

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