How to format your references using the Clinical Otolaryngology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Otolaryngology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kubas G.J. (2006) Chemistry. Breaking the H2 marriage and reuniting the couple. Science 314, 1096–1097.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yedid G. & Bell G. (2002) Macroevolution simulated with autonomously replicating computer programs. Nature 420, 810–812.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rouxel O.J., Bekker A. & Edwards K.J. (2005) Iron isotope constraints on the Archean and Paleoproterozoic ocean redox state. Science 307, 1088–1091.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Koizumi S., Shigemoto-Mogami Y., Nasu-Tada K., et al. (2007) UDP acting at P2Y6 receptors is a mediator of microglial phagocytosis. Nature 446, 1091–1095.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McGrath A.E. (2011) Luther’s Theology of the Cross Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Blanc-Talon J., Kasinski A., Philips W., et al. (eds.) (2013) Advanced Concepts for Intelligent Vision Systems: 15th International Conference, ACIVS 2013, Poznań, Poland, October 28-31, 2013. Proceedings Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Yadav A.K., Vashisth S., Singh H., et al. (2015) Optical Cryptography and Watermarking Using Some Fractional Canonical Transforms, and Structured Masks. In Advances in Optical Science and Engineering: Proceedings of the First International Conference, IEM OPTRONIX 2014 (Lakshminarayanan V. & Bhattacharya I., eds.), pp. 25–36. Springer India, New Delhi.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Otolaryngology.

Blog post
Hale T. (2015) Do You Have Seasonal Affective Disorder? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Review of Pension and Fringe Benefits for Contractors’ Employees at NASA’s Marshall Space Flight Center U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wickramage A.S. (2013) Analysis of Magnaporthe oryzae homologs of Histoplasma capsulatum RYP genes. .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. (2010) Home Is a Place to Hang His Hats. New York Times, E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Otolaryngology
AbbreviationClin. Otolaryngol.
ISSN (print)1749-4478
ISSN (online)1749-4486

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