How to format your references using the Clinical Otolaryngology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Otolaryngology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dobson C.M. (2002) Getting out of shape. Nature 418, 729–730.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hamanaka R.B. & Chandel N.S. (2011) Cell biology. Warburg effect and redox balance. Science 334, 1219–1220.
A journal article with 3 authors
Acquisti C., Kleffe J. & Collins S. (2007) Oxygen content of transmembrane proteins over macroevolutionary time scales. Nature 445, 47–52.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
de Soto N.A., Delorme N., Atkins J., et al. (2013) Anthropogenic noise causes body malformations and delays development in marine larvae. Sci. Rep. 3, 2831.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Campbell A.K. (2014) Intracellular Calcium John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Capraro R.M., Capraro M.M. & Morgan J.R. (eds.) (2013) STEM Project-Based Learning: An Integrated Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) Approach SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Battisti C., Poeta G. & Fanelli G. (2016) Disturbances and Coexistence of Species. In An Introduction to Disturbance Ecology: A Road Map for Wildlife Management and Conservation (Poeta G. & Fanelli G., eds.), pp. 47–52. Springer International Publishing, Cham.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Otolaryngology.

Blog post
Hale T. (2016) Mysterious Metal Object Crash Lands At A Jade Mine In Myanmar. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Railroad Safety: DOT Faces Challenges in Improving Grade Crossing Safety, Track Inspection Standards, and Passenger Car Safety U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mann K.M. (2012) Evaluation of Transfer Technologies to Preserve Shoulder Function in SCI. .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Harris K. (2017) Market Report; Stripes on Stripes. New York Times, ST3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Otolaryngology
AbbreviationClin. Otolaryngol.
ISSN (print)1749-4478
ISSN (online)1749-4486

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