How to format your references using the Clinical Otolaryngology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Otolaryngology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell K. (2003) High-tech, high society. Nature 426, 720–721.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prather M.J. & Blake D.R. (2012) F. Sherwood Rowland (1927-2012). Nature 484, 168.
A journal article with 3 authors
Semmann D., Krambeck H.-J. & Milinski M. (2003) Volunteering leads to rock-paper-scissors dynamics in a public goods game. Nature 425, 390–393.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krishnan B., Levine J.D., Lynch M.K., et al. (2001) A new role for cryptochrome in a Drosophila circadian oscillator. Nature 411, 313–317.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Al-Shuhail A.A., Al-Dossary S.A. & Mousa W.A. (2017) Seismic Data Interpretation using Digital Image Processing John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Thangavel P. & Sridevi G. (eds.) (2015) Environmental Sustainability: Role of Green Technologies Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Grünig R. & Morschett D. (2012) Strategic planning of a domestic company as the starting point for going international. In Developing International Strategies: Going and Being International for Medium-sized Companies (Morschett D., ed.), pp. 65–87. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Otolaryngology.

Blog post
Luntz S. (2016) Bees Give Up On Sunflowers That Don’t Face East. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Customs Service Modernization: Architecture Must Be Complete and Enforced to Effectively Build and Maintain Systems U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Falcone J.N. (2017) For Pets’ Sake: Is There a Need for Dog Safety Community Education? .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Santora M. & Weiser B. (2016) Charges That Bronx Man Tried to Join ISIS Show Shift in Terror Cases. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Otolaryngology
AbbreviationClin. Otolaryngol.
ISSN (print)1749-4478
ISSN (online)1749-4486

Other styles