How to format your references using the Clinical Otolaryngology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Otolaryngology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Magistretti P.J. (2009) Neuroscience. Low-cost travel in neurons. Science 325, 1349–1351.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ding L. & Morrison S.J. (2013) Haematopoietic stem cells and early lymphoid progenitors occupy distinct bone marrow niches. Nature 495, 231–235.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lambert J.B., Gurusamy-Thangavelu S.A. & Ma K. (2010) The silicate-mediated formose reaction: bottom-up synthesis of sugar silicates. Science 327, 984–986.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
DeNicola G.M., Karreth F.A., Humpton T.J., et al. (2011) Oncogene-induced Nrf2 transcription promotes ROS detoxification and tumorigenesis. Nature 475, 106–109.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Howe T.R. (2011) Marriages & Families in the 21st Century Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Pollert J. & Dedus B. (eds.) (2006) Security of Water Supply Systems: from Source to Tap Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Hens N., Shkedy Z., Aerts M., et al. (2012) Estimating the Force of Infection from Incidence and Prevalence. In Modeling Infectious Disease Parameters Based on Serological and Social Contact Data: A Modern Statistical Perspective (Shkedy Z., Aerts M., Faes C., et al., eds.), pp. 79–88. Springer, New York, NY.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Otolaryngology.

Blog post
Evans K. (2017) British Expedition Gets Go-Ahead To Look For “Missing” Meteorites In Antarctica. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2001) Schools and Libraries Program: Update on State-Level Funding by Category of Service U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez J. (2013) Effective nonprofit collaborative networks. .

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schembari J. (2016) Take a Spin With a Pro. New York Times, B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Otolaryngology
AbbreviationClin. Otolaryngol.
ISSN (print)1749-4478
ISSN (online)1749-4486

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