How to format your references using the Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Haldeman J. Brochure. The apocalypse: a great day out for the whole family. Nature. 2000;405:401.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shanahan MER, Sefiane K. Recalcitrant bubbles. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4727.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ichimura T, Fujiwara K, Tanaka H. Dual field effects in electrolyte-gated spinel ferrite: electrostatic carrier doping and redox reactions. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5818.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Qin L, Park S, Huang L, Mirkin CA. On-wire lithography. Science. 2005;309:113-115.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Meyer MD. Transportation Planning Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Schneider-Sliwa R ed. Cities in Transition: Globalization, Political Change and Urban Development. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Belgasem FFB, Salleh HM. Characterization of Recombinant Enzymes. In: Amid A, ed. Recombinant Enzymes - From Basic Science to Commercialization. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:41-60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. 10 Science Jokes for Nerds. IFLScience. 2014. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/physics/10-science-jokes-nerds/ [Accessed October 30, 2018].

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NASA: Progress Made on Strategic Human Capital Management, but Future Program Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Dias J. Factors associated with poor oral health among older adults. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Mets Thank Troops In a Meaningful Setting. New York Times. 2011:B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 6–8].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
AbbreviationClin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
ISSN (print)0009-921X
ISSN (online)1528-1132
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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