How to format your references using the Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hardebeck JL. Stress orientations in subduction zones and the strength of subduction megathrust faults. Science. 2015;349:1213–1216.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lysenko V, Varduny T. Anthocyanin-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis in coloured flower petals? Sci. Rep. 2013;3:3373.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Haince J-F, Rouleau M, Poirier GG. Transcription. Gene expression needs a break to unwind before carrying on. Science. 2006;312:1752–1753.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Meylan E, Curran J, Hofmann K, Moradpour D, Binder M, Bartenschlager R, Tschopp J. Cardif is an adaptor protein in the RIG-I antiviral pathway and is targeted by hepatitis C virus. Nature. 2005;437:1167–1172.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Han CC, Akcasu AZ. Scattering and Dynamics of Polymers. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
1. Yang F. Capturing Connectivity and Causality in Complex Industrial Processes. (Duan P, Shah SL, Chen T, eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Cruse H, Dürr V, Schilling M, Schmitz J. A Bottom-Up Approach for Cognitive Control. In: Arena P, Patanè L, eds. Spatial Temporal Patterns for Action-Oriented Perception in Roving Robots. Cognitive Systems Monographs. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009:179–218.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. How Tiny Black Spots Shed Light On Part Of The Homo Naledi Mystery. IFLScience. 2016. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/how-tiny-black-spots-shed-light-on-part-of-the-homo-naledi-mystery/ [Accessed October 30, 2018].

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. National Science Foundation: Need for Additional Icebreaking Research Vessel Not Demonstrated. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Beaven L. Epiphanies of soul: “When the bolts of the universe fly open.” A depth psychological contemplation of wonder. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gordon MR. A Freed but Scarred City Tests Trump. New York Times. 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 2].
This sentence cites four references [2, 2, 2, 2].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
AbbreviationClin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
ISSN (print)0009-921X
ISSN (online)1528-1132
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles