How to format your references using the Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Delaney P. Palaeoceanography. Nutrients in the glacial balance. Nature. 2000;405:288–9, 291.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Klironomos JN, Hart MM. Food-web dynamics. Animal nitrogen swap for plant carbon. Nature. 2001;410:651–652.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jasny B, Mueller K, Roberts L. HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS: Eastern Europe. Introduction. Science. 2010;329:159.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Mainprice D, Tommasi A, Couvy H, Cordier P, Frost DJ. Pressure sensitivity of olivine slip systems and seismic anisotropy of Earth’s upper mantle. Nature. 2005;433:731–733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Aubry J-F, Brinzei N, Mazouni M-H. Systems Dependability Assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Lin CY-Y. National Intellectual Capital and the Financial Crisis in Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. (Edvinsson L, Chen J, Beding T, eds.). New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Uusitalo E, Assmuth L. Having, Loving, Being in the Periphery: Interpretations of Locality in the National Landscape of Koli, Eastern Finland. In: Silva L, Figueiredo E, eds. Shaping Rural Areas in Europe: Perceptions and Outcomes on the Present and the Future. GeoJournal Library. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013:57–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research.

Blog post
1. Taub B. Here’s What Hypnosis Does To Your Brain. IFLScience. 2016. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Better Accountability Procedures Needed in NSF and NIH Research Grant Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Sumner I. Quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics: Simulating quantum nuclear effects in complex systems. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Yablonsky L. Coast Garde. New York Times. 2011:M224.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [2, 5, 6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
AbbreviationClin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
ISSN (print)0009-921X
ISSN (online)1528-1132
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

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