How to format your references using the Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pessoa L. Neuroscience. Seeing the world in the same way. Science. 2004;303:1617-1618.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Stellwagen D, Malenka RC. Synaptic scaling mediated by glial TNF-alpha. Nature. 2006;440:1054-1059.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Hauke P, Tagliacozzo L, Lewenstein M. Physics. Speeding up quantum field theories. Science. 2012;336:1122-1123.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Yin S, Zhu X, Li R, Niu Y, Wang B, Zheng Z, Huang X, Huo L, Li J. Intervention-induced enhancement in intrinsic brain activity in healthy older adults. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7309.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kagan E, Ben-Gal I. Probabilistic Search for Tracking Targets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. El-Salhy M. Understanding and Controlling the Irritable Bowel. (Hatlebakk JG, Hausken T, eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Horiuchi T, Masamune K, Tsukihara H, Motomura N, Kuwana K, Dohi T. Clipping Device with a Clear Liquid-Flushing Endoscope Equipping Wide View Coaxial Nozzle for Edge-to-Edge Repair Surgery without Heart-Lung Machine. In: Dohi T, Liao H, eds. Computer Aided Surgery: 7th Asian Conference on Computer Aided Surgery, Bangkok, Thailand, August 2011, Proceedings. Proceedings in Information and Communications Technology. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2012:38-46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Voluntary Agreement From Cattle Industry Fights Deforestation. IFLScience. 2015. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Challenge: Time Issues Affecting the Global Positioning System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Rountree BL. Theory and practice of dynamic voltage /frequency scaling in the high performance computing environment. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. Plan for a Bryant Park Carousel Comes Around Yet Again. New York Times. 2001:144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [2].
This sentence cites two references [2, 4].
This sentence cites four references [4–6, 8].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Orthopaedics and Related Research
AbbreviationClin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
ISSN (print)0009-921X
ISSN (online)1528-1132
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Orthopedics and Sports Medicine

Other styles