How to format your references using the Biomaterials Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomaterials Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wang N-X. China’s chemists should avoid the Vanity Fair. Nature. 2011;476:253.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mirabel IF, Rodrigues I. Formation of a black hole in the dark. Science. 2003;300:1119–20.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Chang JC, Lockner DA, Reches Z. Rapid acceleration leads to rapid weakening in earthquake-like laboratory experiments. Science. 2012;338:101–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. O’Connell AD, Hofheinz M, Ansmann M, Bialczak RC, Lenander M, Lucero E, et al. Quantum ground state and single-phonon control of a mechanical resonator. Nature. 2010;464:697–703.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Reay D. Digital Signal Processing and Applications with the OMAP-L138 eXperimenter. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
1. Xu J. Fuzzy-Like Multiple Objective Decision Making. Zhou X, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Donmez P, Carbonell JG. From Active to Proactive Learning Methods. In: Koronacki J, Raś ZW, Wierzchoń ST, Kacprzyk J, editors. Advances in Machine Learning I: Dedicated to the Memory of Professor Ryszard SMichalski. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 97–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomaterials Research.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Satellite Captures Image Of “Gateway To Hell” Volcano Spewing Lava [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: FAA Generally Agrees With but Is Slow in Implementing Safety Recommendations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Sep. Report No.: RCED-96-193.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Harper T. Going public, staying private, and everything in between [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Rosenberg M, Markoff J. At Heart of U.S. Strategy, Weapons That Can Think. New York Times. 2016 Oct 25;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomaterials Research
AbbreviationBiomater. Res.
ISSN (online)2055-7124

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