How to format your references using the Clinical Nutrition Experimental citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Nutrition Experimental. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Macilwain C. Ocean researchers dive to deep-sea stations. Nature 2000;406:449.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lopes WA, Jaeger HM. Hierarchical self-assembly of metal nanostructures on diblock copolymer scaffolds. Nature 2001;414:735–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stott L, Timmermann A, Thunell R. Southern Hemisphere and deep-sea warming led deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise and tropical warming. Science 2007;318:435–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Daley AC, Budd GE, Caron J-B, Edgecombe GD, Collins D. The Burgess Shale anomalocaridid Hurdia and its significance for early euarthropod evolution. Science 2009;323:1597–600.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
MacIsaac B, Langton R. Gas Turbine Propulsion Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Chirikjian GS, Choset H, Morales M, Murphey T, editors. Algorithmic Foundation of Robotics VIII: Selected Contributions of the Eight International Workshop on the Algorithmic Foundations of Robotics. vol. 57. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Vitasek K, Manrodt K, Kling J. U.S. Department of Energy Transforms Weapons Wasteland to Wildlife Site. In: Manrodt K, Kling J, editors. Vested: How P&G, McDonald’s and Microsoft are Redefining Winning in Business Relationships, New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US; 2012, p. 61–87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Nutrition Experimental.

Blog post
Andrew E. Personality Of Female Spider Determines Her Role Within Colony. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Reengineering: Opportunities to Improve. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chung J. Understanding caregiving for older adults with dementia in Korean American families. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. In 15 Hours, Submarine Kursk Is Raised From Sea Floor. New York Times 2001:A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Nutrition Experimental
AbbreviationClin. Nutr. Exp.
ISSN (print)2352-9393

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