How to format your references using the Biotribology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotribology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G.J. Bowen, Ocean science. A faster water cycle, Science. 332 (2011) 430–431.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.J. Maerkl, S.R. Quake, A systems approach to measuring the binding energy landscapes of transcription factors, Science. 315 (2007) 233–237.
A journal article with 3 authors
P.R. Ehrlich, P.M. Kareiva, G.C. Daily, Securing natural capital and expanding equity to rescale civilization, Nature. 486 (2012) 68–73.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Keller, J. Rackwitz, E. Cauët, J. Liévin, T. Körzdörfer, A. Rotaru, K.V. Gothelf, F. Besenbacher, I. Bald, Sequence dependence of electron-induced DNA strand breakage revealed by DNA nanoarrays, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 7391.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. Schmidt, Optische Spektroskopie, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2000.
An edited book
C. Tidona, G. Darai, eds., The Springer Index of Viruses, 2nd ed., Springer, New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Fujiwara, K. Iwama, Y. Sekiguchi, Average-Case Competitive Analyses for One-Way Trading, in: X. Hu, J. Wang (Eds.), Computing and Combinatorics: 14th Annual International Conference, COCOON 2008 Dalian, China, June 27-29, 2008 Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 41–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotribology.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, This “Frankenstein” Galaxy Is Made Up Of Bits Of Other Galaxies, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Proposed Procedure for Access by GAO to Records of Students in the Murphy School District, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.E. Clement, The makings of digital modernism: Rereading Gertrude Stein’s “The Making of Americans” and poetry by Elsa von Freytag -Loringhoven, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, Musburger Criticized for Remarks About Star’s Girlfriend During Title Game, New York Times. (2013) B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotribology
ISSN (print)2352-5738

Other styles