How to format your references using the Biotribology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotribology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J. Janin, Biochemistry. Dicey assemblies, Science. 319 (2008) 165–166.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.H.I. Kappe, S.A. Mikolajczak, Immunology. Another shot at a malaria vaccine, Science. 334 (2011) 460–461.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.D. Bruner, D.P. Norman, G.L. Verdine, Structural basis for recognition and repair of the endogenous mutagen 8-oxoguanine in DNA, Nature. 403 (2000) 859–866.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Wilson, R. Aster, M. West, J. Ni, S. Grand, W. Gao, W.S. Baldridge, S. Semken, P. Patel, Lithospheric structure of the Rio Grande rift, Nature. 433 (2005) 851–855.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Recho, Fracture Mechanics and Crack Growth, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
J. Klingelnberg, ed., Bevel Gear: Fundamentals and Applications, 1st ed. 2016, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
B.J. Coventry, P. Stavrou, Foot Surgery, in: B.J. Coventry (Ed.), Peripheral, Head and Neck Surgery, Springer, London, 2014: pp. 49–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotribology.

Blog post
J. Fang, Seals Blood Contains As Much Carbon Monoxide As A Heavy Smokers’, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Rail Safety and Security: Some Actions Already Taken to Enhance Rail Security, but Risk-based Plan Needed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G.W. Kolaski, Cultural awareness and the U.S. military advisor in the Arab Middle East: A phenomenological study, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
W. Neuman, President of Colombia Halts Peace Talks With Rebels After General Is Seized, New York Times. (2014) A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotribology
ISSN (print)2352-5738

Other styles