How to format your references using the Biotribology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotribology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B.D. Wirth, Materials science. How does radiation damage materials?, Science. 318 (2007) 923–924.
A journal article with 2 authors
W.H. Steel, R.A. Walker, Measuring dipolar width across liquid-liquid interfaces with “molecular rulers,” Nature. 424 (2003) 296–299.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.V. Sobolev, A.W. Hofmann, I.K. Nikogosian, Recycled oceanic crust observed in “ghost plagioclase” within the source of Mauna Loa lavas, Nature. 404 (2000) 986–990.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.-S. Rhyee, K.H. Lee, S.M. Lee, E. Cho, S.I. Kim, E. Lee, Y.S. Kwon, J.H. Shim, G. Kotliar, Peierls distortion as a route to high thermoelectric performance in In(4)Se(3-delta) crystals, Nature. 459 (2009) 965–968.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.J. Neff, R.C. Moss, The Future of Nonprofits, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
R.R. Yager, M.Z. Reformat, N. Alajlan, eds., Intelligent Methods for Cyber Warfare, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
J.K. Keller, C.R. Smith, Refining Habitat Specificity, in: C.R. Smith (Ed.), Improving GIS-Based Wildlife-Habitat Analysis, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 69–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotribology.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, Amazon Founder’s Rocket Company Will Be Launching From Florida, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Joint Strike Fighter: Restructuring Should Improve Outcomes, but Progress Is Still Lagging Overall, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.L. Slabaugh, The Occurrence of Alternans and Arrhythmias in a Multicellular, Cardiac Preparation, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Cowley, Wells Fargo Workers Claim Retaliation for Playing by the Rules, New York Times. (2016) B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotribology
ISSN (print)2352-5738

Other styles