How to format your references using the Biotribology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotribology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
W.B. Bonvillian, Technology. Advanced manufacturing policies and paradigms for innovation, Science. 342 (2013) 1173–1175.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. Wang, M. Kinoshita, Geophysics. Dangers of being thin and weak, Science. 342 (2013) 1178–1180.
A journal article with 3 authors
E. Danchin, E. Wajnberg, R.H. Wagner, Avoiding pitfalls in estimating heritability with the common options approach, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3974.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Jiang, Z. Chen, Y. Han, P. Deb, H. Gao, S. Xie, P. Purohit, M.W. Tate, J. Park, S.M. Gruner, V. Elser, D.A. Muller, Electron ptychography of 2D materials to deep sub-ångström resolution, Nature. 559 (2018) 343–349.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Murray, The Possibility of Culture, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2015.
An edited book
P. Török, Optical Imaging and Microscopy: Techniques and Advanced Systems, 2nd ed., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Hayman, M. McCarthy, Irrigation and Drought in a Southern Australian Climate that is Arid, Variable, and Changing, in: K. Schwabe, J. Albiac, J.D. Connor, R.M. Hassan, L. Meza González (Eds.), Drought in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions: A Multi-Disciplinary and Cross-Country Perspective, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013: pp. 81–99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotribology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Take College And University Courses Online Completely Free, IFLScience. (2013). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Airline Competition: Industry Competitive and Financial Problems, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Sampson, The effects of foster care on children: A comparison of 18th century through modern day foster care practices, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Wagner, Star Catcher’s Rejection of the Indians Paved the Way for Game 1’s Offensive Hero, New York Times. (2016) B13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotribology
ISSN (print)2352-5738

Other styles