How to format your references using the Biotribology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biotribology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B.J. Nachtsheim, Chemistry. Creating antioxidants by oxidation catalysis, Science. 345 (2014) 270–271.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Phadnis, H.A. Orr, A single gene causes both male sterility and segregation distortion in Drosophila hybrids, Science. 323 (2009) 376–379.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Arendt, U. Technau, J. Wittbrodt, Evolution of the bilaterian larval foregut, Nature. 409 (2001) 81–85.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E.C. Holmes, D.J. Lipman, D. Zamarin, J.W. Yewdell, Comment on “Large-scale sequence analysis of avian influenza isolates,” Science. 313 (2006) 1573; author reply 1573.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Q. Studer, Results that Last, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2007.
An edited book
P. Magal, S. Ruan, eds., Structured Population Models in Biology and Epidemiology, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
R.M. Heiberger, E. Neuwirth, Normal and t Workbook, in: E. Neuwirth (Ed.), R Through Excel: A Spreadsheet Interface for Statistics, Data Analysis, and Graphics, Springer, New York, NY, 2009: pp. 81–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biotribology.

Blog post
K. Evans, First Global Analysis Of Alien Species Reveals World’s “Hotspots,” IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Information Technology: Agencies Need to Improve the Accuracy and Reliability of Investment Information, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Pookcharoen, Metacognitive online reading strategies among Thai EFL university students, Doctoral dissertation, Indiana University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A.T. Crane, G. Hay, P.T. Larsen, Mortgage Market Due for Overhaul, New York Times. (2011) B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBiotribology
ISSN (print)2352-5738

Other styles