How to format your references using the Clinical Neurophysiology Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Neurophysiology Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jones, C.H., 2003. Geophysics. How faults accommodate plate motion. Science 300, 1105–1106.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wu, H., Siegel, R.M., 2011. Medicine. Progranulin resolves inflammation. Science 332, 427–428.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mullen, K.T., Kim, Y.J., Gheiratmand, M., 2014. Contrast normalization in colour vision: the effect of luminance contrast on colour contrast detection. Sci. Rep. 4, 7350.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Garkavtsev, I., Kozin, S.V., Chernova, O., Xu, L., Winkler, F., Brown, E., Barnett, G.H., Jain, R.K., 2004. The candidate tumour suppressor protein ING4 regulates brain tumour growth and angiogenesis. Nature 428, 328–332.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Borgen, U.J., Nakrem, H.A., 2016. Morphology, phylogeny and taxonomy of osteolepiform fish. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Gruca, D.A., Czachórski, T., Kozielski, S. (Eds.), 2014. Man-Machine Interactions 3, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Riedl, R., Léger, P.-M., 2016. Establishing and Operating a NeuroIS Lab, in: Léger, P.-M. (Ed.), Fundamentals of NeuroIS: Information Systems and the Brain, Studies in Neuroscience, Psychology and Behavioral Economics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 99–115.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Neurophysiology Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2013. Hot water freezes faster than cold - and now we know why [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Program Status: Naval Surface Fire Support (No. NSIAD-97-179R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Paustian, M.E., 2010. Evaluating competition between the non-native slug Arion subfuscus and the native slug Philomycus carolinianus (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy, M.J.O., 2016. The Rough Read That Was ‘Ulysses.’ New York Times C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jones, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Jones, 2003; Wu and Siegel, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wu and Siegel, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Garkavtsev et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Neurophysiology Practice
AbbreviationClin. Neurophysiol. Pract.
ISSN (print)2467-981X
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)

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