How to format your references using the Clinical Neurophysiology Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Neurophysiology Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zewail, A.H., 2001. The fog that was not. Nature 412, 279.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hosten, O., Kwiat, P., 2008. Observation of the spin hall effect of light via weak measurements. Science 319, 787–790.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu, S., Shima, T., Hou, Z., 2014. Carbon-carbon bond cleavage and rearrangement of benzene by a trinuclear titanium hydride. Nature 512, 413–415.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ikeda, F., Deribe, Y.L., Skånland, S.S., Stieglitz, B., Grabbe, C., Franz-Wachtel, M., van Wijk, S.J.L., Goswami, P., Nagy, V., Terzic, J., Tokunaga, F., Androulidaki, A., Nakagawa, T., Pasparakis, M., Iwai, K., Sundberg, J.P., Schaefer, L., Rittinger, K., Macek, B., Dikic, I., 2011. SHARPIN forms a linear ubiquitin ligase complex regulating NF-κB activity and apoptosis. Nature 471, 637–641.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chandra, S., 2016. Energy, Entropy and Engines. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
del Río, L.A. (Ed.), 2013. Peroxisomes and their Key Role in Cellular Signaling and Metabolism, Subcellular Biochemistry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Sirvent, I., León, T., 2014. Cross-Efficiency in Fuzzy Data Envelopment Analysis (FDEA): Some Proposals, in: Emrouznejad, A., Tavana, M. (Eds.), Performance Measurement with Fuzzy Data Envelopment Analysis, Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 101–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Neurophysiology Practice.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. Zika Virus May Shrink Testicles And Cause Fertility Problems In Men [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2015. Teacher Preparation Programs: Education Should Ensure States Identify Low-Performing Programs and Improve Information-Sharing (No. GAO-15-598). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Houger, V.P., 2011. Generational differences and the impact to employee engagement: A program design (Doctoral dissertation). Capella University, Minneapolis, MN.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2016. Kershaw Delivers His Best Playoff Performance, Leaving Cubs Flustered. New York Times D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zewail, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Hosten and Kwiat, 2008; Zewail, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hosten and Kwiat, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Ikeda et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Neurophysiology Practice
AbbreviationClin. Neurophysiol. Pract.
ISSN (print)2467-981X
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)

Other styles