How to format your references using the Clinical Neurophysiology Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Neurophysiology Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seife, C., 2000. ECONOMICS NOBEL: Dealing With Biases and Discrete Choices. Science 290, 427.
A journal article with 2 authors
Petrovic, M., Hummel, T., 2008. Temporal identity in axonal target layer recognition. Nature 456, 800–803.
A journal article with 3 authors
Thore, S., Leibundgut, M., Ban, N., 2006. Structure of the eukaryotic thiamine pyrophosphate riboswitch with its regulatory ligand. Science 312, 1208–1211.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Urbakh, M., Klafter, J., Gourdon, D., Israelachvili, J., 2004. The nonlinear nature of friction. Nature 430, 525–528.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hwang, R.-B.R., 2012. Periodic Structures. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Mattei, P., 2016. Secular Institutions, Islam and Education Policy: France and the U.S. in Comparative Perspective, St Antony’s Series. Palgrave Macmillan UK, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Forciea, M.A., 2016. Medication Issues, in: Guzzo, T.J., Drach, G.W., Wein, A.J. (Eds.), Primer of Geriatric Urology. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 33–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Neurophysiology Practice.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. This Water Stream Leaking From A Pool Looks Frozen Solid [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1986. Relaxation of the Common Failure Rate Assumption in Modelling Software Reliability (No. 130464). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Crowley, C.E., 2012. Aging of Florida Blue Crabs, Callinectes sapidus, Through the Biochemical Extraction of Lipofuscin (Doctoral dissertation). University of South Florida, Tampa, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M., 1992. Insult My Mom, Please. New York Times A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seife, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Petrovic and Hummel, 2008; Seife, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Petrovic and Hummel, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Urbakh et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Neurophysiology Practice
AbbreviationClin. Neurophysiol. Pract.
ISSN (print)2467-981X
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)

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