How to format your references using the Clinical Neurophysiology Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Neurophysiology Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2002. The best of both worlds. Seattle. Nature 417, 4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Basler, M., Mekalanos, J.J., 2012. Type 6 secretion dynamics within and between bacterial cells. Science 337, 815.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gilmore, C.K., McCarthy, S.E., Spelke, E.S., 2007. Symbolic arithmetic knowledge without instruction. Nature 447, 589–591.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Knoll, A.H., Walter, M.R., Narbonne, G.M., Christie-Blick, N., 2004. Geology. A new period for the geologic time scale. Science 305, 621–622.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hill, R., Solt, G., 2010. Engineering Money. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Durand, M.L., Miller, J.W., Young, L.H. (Eds.), 2016. Endophthalmitis. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Burnell, P., 2011. Is the international environment becoming less benign for democratisation?, in: Erdmann, G., Kneuer, M. (Eds.), Regression of Democracy?: Zeitschrift Für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft Comparative Governance and Politics. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften, Wiesbaden, pp. 81–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Neurophysiology Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Washington, D.C. Is Actually Sinking [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017. Surface Transportation: A Comprehensive Plan Could Facilitate Implementation of a National Performance Management Approach (No. GAO-17-638). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberson, K.L., 2017. Patient and Family Engagement Initiative: A Quantitative Causal-Comparative Analysis (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2006. For $37.5 Million, the Piano Man’s Estate. New York Times 14LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Basler and Mekalanos, 2012; Smaglik, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Basler and Mekalanos, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Knoll et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Neurophysiology Practice
AbbreviationClin. Neurophysiol. Pract.
ISSN (print)2467-981X
ScopeClinical Neurology
Physiology (medical)

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