How to format your references using the Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.N. Spergel, The dark side of cosmology: dark matter and dark energy, Science. 347 (2015) 1100–1102.
A journal article with 2 authors
L. Tsai, G. Barnea, A critical period defined by axon-targeting mechanisms in the murine olfactory bulb, Science. 344 (2014) 197–200.
A journal article with 3 authors
G.K.H. Shimizu, J.M. Taylor, S. Kim, Chemistry. Proton conduction with metal-organic frameworks, Science. 341 (2013) 354–355.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Ormö, E. Sturkell, C. Alwmark, J. Melosh, First known terrestrial impact of a binary asteroid from a main belt breakup event, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6724.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Reid, G. Fraser-King, W.D. Schwaderer, Data Lifecycles, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2006.
An edited book
F.P.M. Dignum, R.M. van Eijk, R. Flores, eds., Agent Communication II: International Workshops on Agent Communication, AC 2005 and AC 2006, Utrecht, Netherlands, July 25, 2005, and Hakodate, Japan, May 9, 2006, Selected and Revised Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Hubrig, C.R. Cowley, F. González, F. Castelli, High Resolution Spectroscopy of HgMn stars: A Time of Surprises, in: N.C. Santos, L. Pasquini, A.C.M. Correia, M. Romaniello (Eds.), Precision Spectroscopy in Astrophysics: Proceedings of the ESO/Lisbon/Aveiro Conference Held in Aveiro, Portugal, 11–15 September 2006, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008: pp. 19–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery.

Blog post
T. Hale, More Than 80 Percent Of The World’s City-Dwellers Breath Poor Quality Air, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, State Department: Overseas Emergency Security Program Progressing, But Costs Are Increasing, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.E. Harris, A quantitative study of the impact of CFO and auditor turnover on internal control weaknesses, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Otis, Playing by Rules After Breaking Them for Years, New York Times. (2017) A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
AbbreviationClin. Neurol. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)0303-8467
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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