How to format your references using the Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G. Bartal, Nanophotonics: bright future for hyperbolic chips, Nature. 522 (2015) 160–161.
A journal article with 2 authors
D.S. Bellows, M. Tyers, Cell biology. Chemical genetics hits, Science. 306 (2004) 67–68.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Barna, P.P. Pandolfi, L. Niswander, Gli3 and Plzf cooperate in proximal limb patterning at early stages of limb development, Nature. 436 (2005) 277–281.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
U. Mock, K. Riecken, B. Berdien, W. Qasim, E. Chan, T. Cathomen, B. Fehse, Novel lentiviral vectors with mutated reverse transcriptase for mRNA delivery of TALE nucleases, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6409.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
German Geotechnical Society, Recommendations on Excavations EAB, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2013.
An edited book
I. Pan, Intelligent Fractional Order Systems and Control: An Introduction, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
X.-J. Liu, J. Wang, Velocity and Jacobian Analysis of Parallel Mechanisms, in: J. Wang (Ed.), Parallel Kinematics: Type, Kinematics, and Optimal Design, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: pp. 121–128.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Discovery of More Genes Associated With Alzheimer’s Disease, IFLScience. (2013).’s-disease/ (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, ASCS Needs Better Information To Adequately Assess Proposed County and State Office Automation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1984.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Y. Ma, Vesicular Stomatitis Virus as a Vector to Deliver Virus-Like Particles of Human Norovirus: A New Live Vectored Vaccine for Human Norovirus, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Sengupta, M. Eddy, C. Buckley, A.J. Rubin, Defiant Other Countries Reaffirm Fight Against Climate Change, New York Times. (2017) A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
AbbreviationClin. Neurol. Neurosurg.
ISSN (print)0303-8467
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Clinical Neurology

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