How to format your references using the Clinical Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
X. Fan, Astronomy. Black holes at the cosmic dawn, Science. 300 (2003) 752–753.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.T. Kiers, S.A. West, Evolutionary biology. Evolving new organisms via symbiosis, Science. 348 (2015) 392–394.
A journal article with 3 authors
B.L. Yoder, R. Bisson, R.D. Beck, Steric effects in the chemisorption of vibrationally excited methane on Ni(100), Science. 329 (2010) 553–556.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Sun, Z.P. Pang, D. Qin, A.T. Fahim, R. Adachi, T.C. Südhof, A dual-Ca2+-sensor model for neurotransmitter release in a central synapse, Nature. 450 (2007) 676–682.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W.Y. Svrcek, D.P. Mahoney, B.R. Young, A Real-Time Approach to Process Control, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2007.
An edited book
R. Carachi, S. Agarwala, T.J. Bradnock, H. Lim Tan, S. Cascio, eds., Basic Techniques in Pediatric Surgery: An Operative Manual, 1st ed., Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Little, Actor-Centered Sociology and the New Pragmatism, in: J. Zahle, F. Collin (Eds.), Rethinking the Individualism-Holism Debate: Essays in the Philosophy of Social Science, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 55–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Immunology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, What Makes One Earth-Like Planet More Habitable Than Another?, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Energy Research and Development Administration’s Contingency Plan for Constructing Additional Enrichment Capacity at Portsmouth, Ohio, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1975.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.M. Roubin, A resource manual of bullying intervention programs for parents, educators, and community officials in the Los Angeles area, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Markoff, Another Sign of Trouble in Google’s Self-Driving Car Unit: Its Top Roboticist Is Leaving, New York Times. (2016) B7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Immunology
AbbreviationClin. Immunol.
ISSN (print)1521-6616
Immunology and Allergy

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