How to format your references using the Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology (CGH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zeng N. Atmospheric science. Drought in the Sahel. Science 2003;302:999-1000.
A journal article with 2 authors
Saarela J, Finnäs F. Infant mortality and ethnicity in an indigenous European population: novel evidence from the Finnish population register. Sci Rep 2014;4:4214.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jin F-F, Boucharel J, Lin I-I. Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones intensified by El Niño delivery of subsurface ocean heat. Nature 2014;516:82-85.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mejlgaard N, Woolley R, Bloch C, et al. Europe’s plans for responsible science. Science 2018;361:761-762.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dasgupta A. Resolving Erroneous Reports in Toxicology and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
Olivieri A. Introduction to Insurance Mathematics: Technical and Financial Features of Risk Transfers. 2nd ed. 2015. (Pitacco E, ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Altmann K-H. Semisynthetic Derivatives of Epothilones. In: Höfle G, Müller R, Mulzer J, et al., eds. The Epothilones: An Outstanding Family of Anti-Tumor Agents: From Soil to the Clinic. Fortschritte der Chemie organischer Naturstoffe / Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products. Vienna: Springer, 2009:135-156.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Rare Albino Tapir Spotted In Brazilian Rainforest. IFLScience. Published March 24, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Status Report on Executive Branch Implementation of the National Materials and Minerals Policy, Research and Development Act of 1980. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1981.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caldretti M. Vocal Pedagogy and the Adolescent Female Singing Voice. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Chinese Cabby’s Query Prompted an Epiphany. New York Times. March 26, 2015:F6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
AbbreviationClin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)1542-3565
ISSN (online)1542-7714

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