How to format your references using the Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology (CGH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCabe H. Jordan chosen to open SESAME. Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East. Nature 2000;406:221.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vidale JE, Earle PS. Fine-scale heterogeneity in the Earth’s inner core. Nature 2000;404:273-275.
A journal article with 3 authors
Song J, Ji C, Zhang JZH. Unveiling the gating mechanism of ECF transporter RibU. Sci Rep 2013;3:3566.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dray N, Tessmar-Raible K, Le Gouar M, et al. Hedgehog signaling regulates segment formation in the annelid Platynereis. Science 2010;329:339-342.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lowman M. A Practical Guide to Analytics for Governments. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
Bezerra EA. Synthesizable VHDL Design for FPGAs. (Lettnin DV, ed.). Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Krogh L, Cold GE. Comparative Studies of Intracranial Pressure in Patients With and Without Space-Occupying Lesions. In: Cold GE, Juul N, eds. Monitoring of Cerebral and Spinal Haemodynamics During Neurosurgery. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2008:77-87.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Blog post
Taub B. Research Reveals How New Brain Cells Are Born. IFLScience. Published August 22, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Intellectual Property: Risk and Enforcement Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cuvar KM. Balanced and collaborative outsourcing of IT services: A qualitative Delphi study of enterprise partnerships. 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. In Aisle 3, Merchandise and Perhaps a Masterpiece; Russia’s New Rich Amass Art Collections, Displaying Them in Varied Ways. New York Times. March 29, 2004:E1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
AbbreviationClin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)1542-3565
ISSN (online)1542-7714

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