How to format your references using the Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology (CGH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Robinson TE. Neuroscience. Addicted rats. Science 2004;305:951-953.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Seife C, Malakoff D. PHYSICS: Will Livermore Laser Ever Burn Brightly? Science 2000;289:1126-1129.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Mili S, Moissoglu K, Macara IG. Genome-wide screen reveals APC-associated RNAs enriched in cell protrusions. Nature 2008;453:115-119.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Blard P-H, Lavé J, Pik R, et al. Persistence of full glacial conditions in the central Pacific until 15,000 years ago. Nature 2007;449:591-594.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Barrett-Lennard GT. The Relationship Inventory. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2014.
An edited book
1.
L’ Ecuyer P, Owen AB, eds. Monte Carlo and Quasi-Monte Carlo Methods 2008. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Paulheim H. Efficient Semantic Event Processing: Lessons Learned in User Interface Integration. In: Aroyo L, Antoniou G, Hyvönen E, et al., eds. The Semantic Web: Research and Applications: 7th Extended Semantic Web Conference, ESWC 2010, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, May 30 – June 3, 2010, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010:60-74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Recently Identified “DNA Clock” Helps Predict Mortality. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/recently-identified-dna-clock-helps-predict-mortality/. Published February 4, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Legality of the Reported Use by the Energy Research and Development Administration of Certain Fossil Energy Funds for Contracts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Pugh AN. Adoption is an option: A personal narrative. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kelly C. The Phantom Typist Revealed. New York Times. October 29, 2000:14WC8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
AbbreviationClin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)1542-3565
ISSN (online)1542-7714
ScopeGastroenterology
Hepatology

Other styles