How to format your references using the Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology (CGH). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen A. Drug development: A combined effort. Nature 2013;502:S4-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wender PA, Miller BL. Synthesis at the molecular frontier. Nature 2009;460:197-201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haince J-F, Rouleau M, Poirier GG. Transcription. Gene expression needs a break to unwind before carrying on. Science 2006;312:1752-1753.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Becker MA, Vaxenburg R, Nedelcu G, et al. Bright triplet excitons in caesium lead halide perovskites. Nature 2018;553:189-193.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hitz CB, Ewing J, Hecht J. Introduction to Laser Technology. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
Tan DS, Nijholt A, eds. Brain-Computer Interfaces: Applying Our Minds to Human-Computer Interaction. London: Springer, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Barcelos AMF. Student Teachers’ Beliefs and Motivation, and the Shaping of Their Professional Identities. In: Barcelos AMF, Aro M, Ruohotie-Lyhty M, eds. Beliefs, Agency and Identity in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2015:71-96.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Blog post
Fang J. One Injection Reverses Diabetes Symptoms Without Side Effects. IFLScience. Published July 17, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Slow Progress, Uncertain Future Threaten FAA Program To Measure Safety. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Akers K. The Impact of Work-Family Conflict, Gender, and Family-Friendly Policies on Organizational Attractiveness and Job Pursuit Intentions. 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. For the Chief Justice, a Dissent and a Line in the Sand. New York Times. April 8, 2007:WK12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
AbbreviationClin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)1542-3565
ISSN (online)1542-7714

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