How to format your references using the Clinical Dysmorphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Dysmorphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Elitzur M (2005). Astronomy. Masers in the sky. Science 309:71–72.
A journal article with 2 authors
Geller MR, Zhou Z (2013). Factoring 51 and 85 with 8 qubits. Sci Rep 3:3023.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang W, Kawamata H, Liu K (2009). CH stretching excitation in the early barrier F + CHD3 reaction inhibits CH bond cleavage. Science 325:303–306.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Patton GC, Olsson CA, Skirbekk V, et al. (2018). Adolescence and the next generation. Nature 554:458–466.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (2003). Guidelines for Investigating Chemical Process Incidents. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Peters JF, Skowron A (editors) (2008). Transactions on Rough Sets VIII. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sprent JI (2005). Biological Nitrogen Fixation Associated with Angiosperms in Terrestrial Ecosystems. In: Nutrient Acquisition by Plants: An Ecological Perspective. BassiriRad H (editor). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; pp.89–116

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Dysmorphology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015). Can Elusive Cancer Stem Cells Seed New Tumours Months After Chemotherapy? IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1970). Utilization of the United States Coast Guard High Endurance Cutter Fleet. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thompson P (2012). An exploratory study of work-related imagined interactions with real-life coworkers. Doctoral dissertation Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012). Catching a Running Partner at the Trials,With a Chance to Pass. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Elitzur, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Elitzur, 2005; Geller and Zhou, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Geller and Zhou, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Patton et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Dysmorphology
AbbreviationClin. Dysmorphol.
ISSN (print)0962-8827
ISSN (online)1473-5717
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles