How to format your references using the Clinical Dysmorphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Dysmorphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Javitt G (2010). Which way for genetic-test regulation? Assign regulation appropriate to the level of risk. Nature 466:817–818.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bradford L, O’Tierney P (2001). Three-person rule was not set by Nobel himself. Nature 411:413.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schätz T, Schramm U, Habs D (2001). Crystalline ion beams. Nature 412:717–720.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang GC, Wang Q, Li SL, Ai XG, Fan CG (2014). Evidence of multi-step nucleation leading to various crystallization pathways from an Fe-O-Al melt. Sci Rep 4:5082.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kyan M, Muneesawang P, Jarrah K, Guan L (2014). Unsupervised Learning. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Quirk TJ (2013). Excel 2010 for Biological and Life Sciences Statistics: A Guide to Solving Practical Problems (Quirk M, Horton H (editors)). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Höfler H, Langer R, Ott K, Keller G (2007). Prediction of Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Carcinomas of the Upper Gastrointestinal Tract. In: Targeted Therapies in Cancer. Dietel M (editor). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; pp.33–36

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Dysmorphology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J (2016). A Major Barrier To Drone Deliveries In The US Is Finally Being Lifted. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2005). Information Technology: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Needs to Establish Critical Investment Management Capabilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mauger GS (2008). Synoptic sensitivities of subtropical clouds: Separating aerosol effects from meteorology. Doctoral dissertation University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich JR (2017). Grand and Beloved (Sometimes Hated). New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Javitt, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Bradford and O’Tierney, 2001; Javitt, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bradford and O’Tierney, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Dysmorphology
AbbreviationClin. Dysmorphol.
ISSN (print)0962-8827
ISSN (online)1473-5717
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles