How to format your references using the Clinical Dysmorphology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Dysmorphology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ahmed F (2010). Epigenetics: Tales of adversity. Nature 468:S20.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schultz DM, Yoon TP (2014). Solar synthesis: prospects in visible light photocatalysis. Science 343:1239176.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen D-B, Xiao R, Zeng A (2014). Predicting the evolution of spreading on complex networks. Sci Rep 4:6108.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kawakami RK, Kato Y, Hanson M, et al. (2001). Ferromagnetic imprinting of nuclear spins in semiconductors. Science 294:131–134.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kobilinsky L, Liotti TF, Oeser-Sweat J (2004). DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shetty NR, Prasad NH, Nalini N (editors) (2015). Emerging Research in Computing, Information, Communication and Applications: ERCICA 2015, Volume 1. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Yamabe H (2013). Influence of Water on the Interface Properties. In: Design of Adhesive Joints Under Humid Conditions. Silva LFM da, Sato C (editors). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; pp.95–111

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Dysmorphology.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014). World First: 3D Acoustic Cloaking Device. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009). Federal Air Marshal Service: Actions Taken to Fulfill Core Mission and Address Workforce Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fischer D (2012). Psychology and people living with hiv/aids: A critical review of the literature. Doctoral dissertation Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
O’connor J (2016). Biking Through Badlands. New York Times TR1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ahmed, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Ahmed, 2010; Schultz and Yoon, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schultz and Yoon, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Kawakami et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Dysmorphology
AbbreviationClin. Dysmorphol.
ISSN (print)0962-8827
ISSN (online)1473-5717
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine
Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles