How to format your references using the Clinical Drug Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Drug Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Pratt DW. Molecular dynamics. Biomolecules see the light. Science. 2002;296:2347–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Anglada-Escudé G, Tuomi M. Exoplanet detection. Comment on “Stellar activity masquerading as planets in the habitable zone of the M dwarf Gliese 581.” Science. 2015;347:1080.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Griffin BM, Schott J, Schink B. Nitrite, an electron donor for anoxygenic photosynthesis. Science. 2007;316:1870.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Bragg AE, Verlet JRR, Kammrath A, Cheshnovsky O, Neumark DM. Hydrated electron dynamics: from clusters to bulk. Science. 2004;306:669–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Landa R. Advertising by Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Jobbágy Á, editor. 5th European Conference of the International Federation for Medical and Biological Engineering: 14–18 September 2011, Budapest, Hungary. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lahti DC. The Correlated History of Social Organization, Moralitymorality , and Religion. In: Voland E, Schiefenhövel W, editors. The Biological Evolution of Religious Mind and Behavior. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 67–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Drug Investigation.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Scientists Find Bacteria That “Breathe” Uranium [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/scientists-find-bacteria-thrive-uranium/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Aviation Workforce: Current and Future Availability of Airline Pilots. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Feb. Report No.: GAO-14-232.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Marchek SP. A quantitative investigation of the Technology Obsolescence Model (TOM) factors that influence the decision to replace obsolete systems [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Walsh MW. A Hive of Growth, Dallas Flirts With Bankruptcy. New York Times. 2016 Nov 21;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Drug Investigation
AbbreviationClin. Drug Investig.
ISSN (print)1173-2563
ISSN (online)1179-1918
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)

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