How to format your references using the Clinical Drug Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Drug Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hong W. Science & SciLifeLab Prize. Assembly of a neural circuit. Science. 2013;342:1186.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Zhang X, Zhao M. Strain-induced phase transition and electron spin-polarization in graphene spirals. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5699.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Green ED, Guyer MS, National Human Genome Research Institute. Charting a course for genomic medicine from base pairs to bedside. Nature. 2011;470:204–13.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Schlag J, Cai RH, Dorfman A, Mohempour A, Schlag-Rey M. Extrapolating movement without retinal motion. Nature. 2000;403:38–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Abulencia JP, Theodore L. Open-Ended Problems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1. Pȃrvu I, Sandu G, Toader ID, editors. Romanian Studies in Philosophy of Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fisher K. Formality versus Reality: An Exploration of the Development Process for Mega Townships in India. In: Tiwari P, editor. The Towers of New Capital: Mega Townships in India. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 38–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Drug Investigation.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. These Four Things Could Cut U.S. Cancer Deaths In Half [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/these-four-things-could-reduce-your-risk-getting-cancer-70-percent/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: FCC Should Improve the Accountability and Transparency of High-Cost Program Funding. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Jul. Report No.: GAO-14-587.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hawkins JT. A Private Solution to a Public Problem: Managing Hydraulic Fracturing Risks by Enhancing Private Governance through Mandatory Insurance Requirements [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Oestreich JR. Review: The Vienna Philharmonic Adds New Work, and Women. New York Times. 2017 Mar 1;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Drug Investigation
AbbreviationClin. Drug Investig.
ISSN (print)1173-2563
ISSN (online)1179-1918
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)

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