How to format your references using the Clinical Drug Investigation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Drug Investigation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ciotti L. Galaxy formation: Anatomy of elliptical galaxies. Nature. 2009;460:333–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hyman AH, Simons K. The new cell biology: Beyond HeLa cells. Nature. 2011;480:34.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Xia K, Vanner MR, Twamley J. An opto-magneto-mechanical quantum interface between distant superconducting qubits. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5571.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Liu S-S, De Barro PJ, Xu J, Luan J-B, Zang L-S, Ruan Y-M, et al. Asymmetric mating interactions drive widespread invasion and displacement in a whitefly. Science. 2007;318:1769–72.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Bill Huitt WM. Bioprocessing Piping and Equipment Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Garcia-Alfaro J, Navarro-Arribas G, Cuppens-Boulahia N, Capitani di Vimercati S de, editors. Data Privacy Management and Autonomous Spontaneus Security: 6th International Workshop, DPM 2011, and 4th International Workshop, SETOP 2011, Leuven, Belgium, September 15-16, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. da Saúde JML, Silva JM. Aircraft Industrialization Process: A Systematic and Holistic Approach to Ensuring Integrated Management of the Engineering Process. In: Henriques E, Pecas P, Silva A, editors. Technology and Manufacturing Process Selection: The Product Life Cycle Perspective. London: Springer; 2014. p. 81–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Drug Investigation.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Astronomers Have Discovered A New Moon In Our Solar System [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/moon-discovered-around-dwarf-planet-makemake/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Intercity Passenger Rail: The Congress Faces Critical Decisions About the Role of and Funding for Intercity Passenger Rail Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Jul. Report No.: GAO-01-820T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Hernandez SS. Professionals’ perceptions of effective interventions with elderly hoarders [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. Sing a Song of Face Creams. New York Times. 2017 Apr 7;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Drug Investigation
AbbreviationClin. Drug Investig.
ISSN (print)1173-2563
ISSN (online)1179-1918
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)

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