How to format your references using the International Immunopharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Immunopharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
J.F. Scott, Applications of modern ferroelectrics, Science. 315 (2007) 954–959.
A journal article with 2 authors
S. Tan, J. Lü, Characterizing the effect of population heterogeneity on evolutionary dynamics on complex networks, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5034.
A journal article with 3 authors
B.P. Klaholz, A.G. Myasnikov, M. Van Heel, Visualization of release factor 3 on the ribosome during termination of protein synthesis, Nature. 427 (2004) 862–865.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
X.-D. Xu, H. Cheng, W.-H. Chen, S.-X. Cheng, R.-X. Zhuo, X.-Z. Zhang, In situ recognition of cell-surface glycans and targeted imaging of cancer cells, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2679.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.L. Rabe, R.J. Martorana, Alts Democratized, John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
U. Montanari, D. Sannella, R. Bruni, eds., Trustworthy Global Computing: Second Symposium, TGC 2006, Lucca, Italy, November 7-9, 2006, Revised Selected Papers, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Andresen, Compensation for Human Rights Violations in Estonia, in: E. Bagińska (Ed.), Damages for Violations of Human Rights: A Comparative Study of Domestic Legal Systems, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 43–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Immunopharmacology.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Why It Is Useful To Understand The Role Of Genetics In Behaviour, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA Travel: Passenger Aircraft Services Annually Cost Taxpayers Millions More Than Commercial Airlines, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.E. Powell, Menasha Litigation: Wake-Up Call or Just A False Alarm, Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, Putting It Together, Piece by Piece, New York Times. (2010) E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Immunopharmacology
AbbreviationInt. Immunopharmacol.
ISSN (print)1567-5769
Immunology and Allergy

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