How to format your references using the International Immunopharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Immunopharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
K. Powell, The places in between, Nature. 446 (2007) 944–945.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.K. Jesson, S.C.H. Barrett, Solving the puzzle of mirror-image flowers, Nature. 417 (2002) 707.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Nolan, I. James, S. Mallal, HIV/AIDS. HIV: experiencing the pressures of modern life, Science. 307 (2005) 1422–1424.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Li, B. Yang, K. Xing, N. Yuan, B. Wang, Z. Chen, W. He, J. Zhou, A preliminary study of the relationship between breast cancer metastasis and loss of heterozygosity by using exome sequencing, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5460.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
H. Simmendinger, HOAI 2013: Praxisleitfaden für Ingenieure und Architekten, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, D-69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2013.
An edited book
B. Øksendal, Applied Stochastic Control of Jump Diffusions, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Y. Gao, C. Li, L. Fu, H. Chu, Overall Performance Comparison of Three Dual-Frequency Constant Envelop Modulation Schemes for GNSS, in: J. Sun, J. Liu, S. Fan, F. Wang (Eds.), China Satellite Navigation Conference (CSNC) 2016 Proceedings: Volume II, Springer, Singapore, 2016: pp. 47–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Immunopharmacology.

Blog post
J. Fang, 600-Year-Old Canoe Offers Glimpse of Early Polynesian Explorers, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Department of Transportation: Credit Assistance for Surface Transportation Projects, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Fouts, A mental health outreach program for adolescent gang members and at-risk youth: A grant writing project, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Roach, Not an Accident, New York Times. (2016) BR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Immunopharmacology
AbbreviationInt. Immunopharmacol.
ISSN (print)1567-5769
Immunology and Allergy

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