How to format your references using the International Immunopharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Immunopharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Sastry, The relationship between fragility, configurational entropy and the potential energy landscape of glass-forming liquids, Nature. 409 (2001) 164–167.
A journal article with 2 authors
L.D. Pena, S.L. Goldstein, Thermohaline circulation crisis and impacts during the mid-Pleistocene transition, Science. 345 (2014) 318–322.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Gnone, T. Moriconi, G. Gambini, Sleep behaviour: activity and sleep in dolphins, Nature. 441 (2006) E10-1; discussion E11.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S.-H. Lee, J.-H. Choi, N. Lee, H.-R. Lee, J.-I. Kim, N.-K. Yu, S.-L. Choi, S.-H. Lee, H. Kim, B.-K. Kaang, Synaptic protein degradation underlies destabilization of retrieved fear memory, Science. 319 (2008) 1253–1256.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Dimond, Legal Aspects of Mental Capacity, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2008.
An edited book
K. Matsumoto, ed., Heterocyclic Supramolecules I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
V. Koshmanenko, M. Dudkin, Singular Quadratic Forms, in: M. Dudkin (Ed.), The Method of Rigged Spaces in Singular Perturbation Theory of Self-Adjoint Operators, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 73–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Immunopharmacology.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Microscopic Marine Plants Bioengineer Their Environment To Enhance Their Own Growth, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Coordination of Government Research and Development, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1976.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.T. Vas, Orbis pictus: Intermedialität zwischen Berliner Stadtmalerei und literarischer Stadterfahrung dargestellt anhand der Werke von E.T.A. Hoffmann und Wilhelm Raabe, Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Crow, Listening Hard to Softer Cries for Help, New York Times. (2001) 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Immunopharmacology
AbbreviationInt. Immunopharmacol.
ISSN (print)1567-5769
Immunology and Allergy

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