How to format your references using the South African Journal of Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Journal of Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R.F. 2000. MATERIALS SCIENCE: New Tigers in the Fuel Cell Tank. Science (New York, N.Y.), 288, 1955–1957.
A journal article with 2 authors
Grimmer, M.R. and Costello, J.F. 2016. Cancer: Oncogene brought into the loop. Nature, 529, 34–35.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lin, X., Hull, C.M. and Heitman, J. 2005. Sexual reproduction between partners of the same mating type in Cryptococcus neoformans. Nature, 434, 1017–1021.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pestova, T.V., Lomakin, I.B., Lee, J.H., Choi, S.K., Dever, T.E. and Hellen, C.U. 2000. The joining of ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes requires eIF5B. Nature, 403, 332–335.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiMaio, M.S., Fox, J.E. and Mahoney, M.J. 2010. Prenatal Diagnosis: Cases & Clinical Challenges. Oxford, UK, Wiley-Blackwell
An edited book
Fernández de Cañete, J. 2011. System Engineering and Automation: An Interactive Educational Approach. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, XI, 255 ppp.
A chapter in an edited book
Rodriguez, F., Bräuning, A., Gerique, A., Behling, H. and Volland, F. 2013. Landscape History, Vegetation History, and Past Human Impacts. In: J. Bendix, E. Beck, A. Bräuning, F. Makeschin, R. Mosandl, S. Scheu and W. Wilcke (Editors) Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Environmental Change in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of South Ecuador. Ecological Studies. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Journal of Geology.

Blog post
Hale, T. 2016.Interactive Maps Show The Devastating Effects Of Dropping Nuclear Bombs. Available at (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1998. Federal Research: Observations on the Small Business Innovation Research Program. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allyasin, F. 2010. Low-cost frequency-domain methods of ruby fluorescence lifetime measurements. Doctoral dissertation Thesis. Long Beach, CA, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Davey, M. and Walsh, M.W. 2013. Billions in Debt, Detroit Tumbles Into Insolvency. New York Times, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Service, 2000; Grimmer and Costello, 2016).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Grimmer and Costello, 2016)
  • Three or more authors: (Pestova et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Journal of Geology
AbbreviationSouth Afr. J. Geol.
ISSN (print)1012-0750
ISSN (online)1996-8590

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