How to format your references using the South African Journal of Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Journal of Geology (Geol. South Africa). For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Naeem, S. 2008. Ecology. Green with complexity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319, 913–914.
A journal article with 2 authors
Caruthers, M. and Wells, R. 2011. Retrospective. Har Gobind Khorana (1922-2011). Science (New York, N.Y.), 334, 1511.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gu, C., Jan, Y.N. and Jan, L.Y. 2003. A conserved domain in axonal targeting of Kv1 (Shaker) voltage-gated potassium channels. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301, 646–649.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Thomas, G.A., Shraiman, B.I., Glodis, P.F. and Stephens, M.J. 2000. Towards the clarity limit in optical fibre. Nature, 404, 262–264.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Heuer, A. 2012. Der perfekte Tipp. Weinheim, Germany, Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA
An edited book
Detyniecki, M., García-Serrano, A., Nürnberger, A. and Stober, S. (eds.) 2013. Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval. Large-Scale Multimedia Retrieval and Evaluation: 9th International Workshop, AMR 2011, Barcelona, Spain, July 18-19, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, X, 141 p. 43 illuspp.
A chapter in an edited book
Bowers, C., Cannon-Bowers, J. and Hussain, T. 2009. Considering User Knowledge in the Evaluation of Training System Usability. In: M. Kurosu (Editor) Human Centered Design: First International Conference, HCD 2009, Held as Part of HCI International 2009, San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009 Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 27–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Journal of Geology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2013.Small Brain Region Plays Big Role In Decision Making. Available at (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2006. Responses to Questions for the Record; Hearing on The Future of Air Traffic Control: The R&D Agenda. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams Soberanes, C. 2012. Experiences of Mexican Immigrant Women Living in the Washington D.C. Metropolitan Area. Doctoral dissertation Thesis. Washington, DC, George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Fernandez, M. and Pérez-Peña, R. 2015. Fraternity Vows Broader Look Into Use of Racist Chant. New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hla, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Simpson, 2001; de Jong, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Caruthers and Wells, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al., 2017)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Journal of Geology
AbbreviationSouth Afr. J. Geol.
ISSN (print)1012-0750
ISSN (online)1996-8590

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