How to format your references using the South African Journal of Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Journal of Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bertola, F. 2002. Astronomy. Putting galaxies on the scale. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295, 283–284.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vaquero, L.M. and Cebrian, M. 2013. The rich club phenomenon in the classroom. Scientific reports, 3, 1174.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, M.G., Park, H.S. and Hwang, H.S. 2010. Detection of a large-scale structure of intracluster globular clusters in the Virgo cluster. Science (New York, N.Y.), 328, 334–336.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rohde, J.-U., In, J.-H., Lim, M.H., Brennessel, W.W., Bukowski, M.R., Stubna, A., Münck, E., Nam, W. and Que, L., Jr 2003. Crystallographic and spectroscopic characterization of a nonheme Fe(IV)-O complex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299, 1037–1039.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Denny, H.R. and Butterworth, S.J. 2008. A Guide to Canine and Feline Orthopaedic Surgery. Oxford, UK, Blackwell Science Ltd
An edited book
Robinson, M.W. and Dalton, J.P. (eds.) 2011. Cysteine Proteases of Pathogenic Organisms. Boston, MA, Springer US, XIX, 226 ppp.
A chapter in an edited book
Benson, D.J., Iyengar, S. and Krause, H. 2012. Thursday. In: S. Iyengar and H. Krause (Editors) Representations of Finite Groups: Local Cohomology and Support. Basel, Springer, 63–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Journal of Geology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. 2015.‘Kennewick Man’ Was Native American, Study Suggests. Available at (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1993. Vocational Education: Status in 2-Year Colleges in 1990-91 and Early Signs of Change. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zuckerman, T. 2017. The Effect of Communication Between Parents and their Emerging Adult Offspring on Depression and Career Search Self-efficacy. Doctoral dissertation Thesis. Washington, DC, George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Protess, B. and Thomas, L., Jr 2016. Deutsche Bank to Settle U.S. Inquiry Into Mortgages for $7.2 Billion. New York Times, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bertola, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bertola, 2002; Vaquero and Cebrian, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vaquero and Cebrian, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Rohde et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Journal of Geology
AbbreviationSouth Afr. J. Geol.
ISSN (print)1012-0750
ISSN (online)1996-8590

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