How to format your references using the South African Journal of Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Journal of Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nilsson, L. 2014. Ph.D.s, come out of the closet! Science (New York, N.Y.), 345, 706.
A journal article with 2 authors
Herberstein, M.E. and Kemp, D.J. 2012. Physiology. A clearer view from fuzzy images. Science (New York, N.Y.), 335, 409–410.
A journal article with 3 authors
Casanova-Sáez, R., Candela, H. and Micol, J.L. 2014. Combined haploinsufficiency and purifying selection drive retention of RPL36a paralogs in Arabidopsis. Scientific reports, 4, 4122.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jansen, C.A., de Geus, E.D., van Haarlem, D.A., van de Haar, P.M., Löndt, B.Z., Graham, S.P., Göbel, T.W., van Eden, W., Brookes, S.M. and Vervelde, L. 2013. Differential lung NK cell responses in avian influenza virus infected chickens correlate with pathogenicity. Scientific reports, 3, 2478.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernandes, R. 2014. Local and Regional Flaps in Head & Neck Reconstruction. Hoboken, NJ, John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Popescu, E., Li, Q., Klamma, R., Leung, H. and Specht, M. (eds.) 2012. Advances in Web-Based Learning - ICWL 2012: 11th International Conference, Sinaia, Romania, September 2-4, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, XIV, 356 p. 90 illuspp.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramón-Vigo, R., Pérez-Higueras, N., Caballero, F. and Merino, L. 2016. A Framework for Modelling Local Human-Robot Interactions Based on Unsupervised Learning. In: A. Agah, J.-J. Cabibihan, A.M. Howard, M.A. Salichs and H. He (Editors) Social Robotics: 8th International Conference, ICSR 2016, Kansas City, MO, USA, November 1-3, 2016 Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham, Springer International Publishing, 32–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Journal of Geology.

Blog post
Luntz, S. 2016.Gut Microbes Control Parkinson’s Disease In Mice. Available at (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1978. BPA Management of ADP Systems Development Activities. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lim, R.H.-J. 2017. A stylistic analysis of and performance suggestions for Robert Muczynski’s Second Piano Sonata, Opus 22. Doctoral dissertation Thesis. Long Beach, CA, California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, J. 2017. After Election, More New Yorkers Are Telling Volunteer Groups, ‘I Can Help.’ New York Times, A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nilsson, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Herberstein and Kemp, 2012; Nilsson, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Herberstein and Kemp, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Jansen et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Journal of Geology
AbbreviationSouth Afr. J. Geol.
ISSN (print)1012-0750
ISSN (online)1996-8590

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