How to format your references using the South African Journal of Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for South African Journal of Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garboczi, D.N. 2005. Structural biology. ‘D’ is not for diversity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308, 209–210.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoekstra, H.E. and Price, T. 2004. Evolution. Parallel evolution is in the genes. Science (New York, N.Y.), 303, 1779–1781.
A journal article with 3 authors
Regan, C.K., Craig, S.L. and Brauman, J.I. 2002. Steric effects and solvent effects in ionic reactions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295, 2245–2247.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Williams, P.A., Cosme, J., Vinkovic, D.M., Ward, A., Angove, H.C., Day, P.J., Vonrhein, C., Tickle, I.J. and Jhoti, H. 2004. Crystal structures of human cytochrome P450 3A4 bound to metyrapone and progesterone. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305, 683–686.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
DiBattista, M. 2010. Novel Characters. Oxford, UK, Wiley-Blackwell
An edited book
Shreve, P. and Townsend, D.W. (eds.) 2011. Clinical PET-CT in Radiology: Integrated Imaging in Oncology. New York, NY, Springer, XIV, 437 p. 690 illus., 149 illus. in colorpp.
A chapter in an edited book
Slutsky, D.J. 2015. Osteoarthritis of the Thumb. In: I.A. Trail and A.N.M. Fleming (Editors) Disorders of the Hand: Volume 3: Inflammation, Arthritis and Contractures. London, Springer, 71–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for South African Journal of Geology.

Blog post
Davis, J. 2016.Hands-Free ‘Bionic’ Penis In Development. Available at (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1970. Allowances for Independent Research and Development Costs in Negotiated Contracts. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ashrafzadeh, M.H. 2008. Provision of community services for the mentally challenged population in Iran. Doctoral dissertation Thesis. Phoenix, AZ, University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. 2016. Tarnish on the Torch. New York Times, BR11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Garboczi, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Hoekstra and Price, 2004; Garboczi, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoekstra and Price, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Williams et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleSouth African Journal of Geology
AbbreviationSouth Afr. J. Geol.
ISSN (print)1012-0750
ISSN (online)1996-8590

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