How to format your references using the EconomiA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EconomiA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parkes, R.J., 2000. A case of bacterial immortality? Nature 407, 844–845.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ransohoff, R.M., Stevens, B., 2011. Neuroscience. How many cell types does it take to wire a brain? Science 333, 1391–1392.
A journal article with 3 authors
Depège, N., Bellafiore, S., Rochaix, J.-D., 2003. Role of chloroplast protein kinase Stt7 in LHCII phosphorylation and state transition in Chlamydomonas. Science 299, 1572–1575.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Rana, R., Pandey, P., Singh, R.P., Rana, D.S., 2014. Positive exchange-bias and giant vertical hysteretic shift in La0.3Sr0.7FeO3/SrRuO3 bilayers. Sci. Rep. 4, 4138.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mattu, A., Grossman, S.A., Rosen, P.L., 2016. Geriatric Emergencies. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Smith, H., McDermott, J.C. (Eds.), 2016. The Foxfire Approach: Inspiration for Classrooms and Beyond. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Bourgeois, S., Domenichini, B., Jupille, J., 2015. Excess Electrons at Oxide Surfaces, in: Jupille, J., Thornton, G. (Eds.), Defects at Oxide Surfaces, Springer Series in Surface Sciences. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 123–147.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EconomiA.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. No, We Aren’t Heading Into A ‘Mini Ice Age’ [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Computer Operations and Data Processing Activities at the Social Security Administration (No. HRD-77-97). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liggins, J., 2012. Self-concept education as a motivator of life effectiveness (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gondelman, J., 2017. A Comedian’s Most Important Set. New York Times SR6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Parkes, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Parkes, 2000; Ransohoff and Stevens, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ransohoff and Stevens, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Rana et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomiA
ISSN (print)1517-7580

Other styles