How to format your references using the EconomiA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EconomiA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anderson, J.B., 2007. Climate change. Ice sheet stability and sea-level rise. Science 315, 1803–1804.
A journal article with 2 authors
Müller, B., Sheen, J., 2007. Advances in cytokinin signaling. Science 318, 68–69.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, B., Chen, J., Singer, R.H., 2014. Background free imaging of single mRNAs in live cells using split fluorescent proteins. Sci. Rep. 4, 3615.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Brownell, R.L., Jr, Tillman, M.F., di Sciara, G.N., Berggren, P., Read, A.J., 2000. Further scrutiny of scientific whaling. Science 290, 1696a.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Waye, J.D., Aisenberg, J., Rubin, P.H., 2013. Practical Colonoscopy. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Grädel, E., 2007. Finite Model Theory and Its Applications, Texts in Theoretical Computer Science an EATCS Series. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Toyama, H., Nakano, M., Satake, Y., Toyama, N., 2008. Rapid Isolation of the Trichoderma Strain with Higher Degrading Ability of a Filter Paper and Superior Proliferation Characteristics Using Avicel Plates and the Double-Layer Selection Medium, in: Adney, W.S., McMillan, J.D., Mielenz, J., Klasson, K.T. (Eds.), Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals: Proceedings of the Twenty-Ninth Symposium on Biotechnology for Fuels and Chemicals Held April 29–May 2, 2007, in Denver, Colorado. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 23–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EconomiA.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Sleepless Mice Have Memory Protected [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2004. Telecommunications: Issues Related to Federal Funding for Public Television by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (No. GAO-04-284). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeSpain, L., 2008. The relationship between police supervisor training and job satisfaction levels as reported by patrol officers (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lowry, M.P., 2014. Fire Starter. New York Times MM54.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Anderson, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Anderson, 2007; Müller and Sheen, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Müller and Sheen, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Brownell et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomiA
ISSN (print)1517-7580

Other styles