How to format your references using the EconomiA citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for EconomiA. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lui, A.T.Y., 2009. Comment on “Tail reconnection triggering substorm onset.” Science 324, 1391.
A journal article with 2 authors
Xiong, W., Ferrell, J.E., Jr, 2003. A positive-feedback-based bistable “memory module” that governs a cell fate decision. Nature 426, 460–465.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zákány, J., Kmita, M., Duboule, D., 2004. A dual role for Hox genes in limb anterior-posterior asymmetry. Science 304, 1669–1672.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Thompson, R.J., Jackson, M.F., Olah, M.E., Rungta, R.L., Hines, D.J., Beazely, M.A., MacDonald, J.F., MacVicar, B.A., 2008. Activation of pannexin-1 hemichannels augments aberrant bursting in the hippocampus. Science 322, 1555–1559.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kobilinsky, L., Liotti, T.F., Oeser-Sweat, J., 2004. DNA: Forensic and Legal Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Chang, C.C., Incaudo, G.A., Gershwin, M.E. (Eds.), 2014. Diseases of the Sinuses: A Comprehensive Textbook of Diagnosis and Treatment, 2nd ed. 2014. ed. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Mailafiya, D.M., 2015. Agrobiodiversity for Biological Pest Control in Sub-Saharan Africa, in: Lichtfouse, E. (Ed.), Sustainable Agriculture Reviews: Volume 18, Sustainable Agriculture Reviews. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 107–143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for EconomiA.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2016. Dig Begins For Legendary Nazi Gold Train [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Radio Communications: Congressional Action Needed to Ensure Agencies Collaborate to Develop a Joint Solution (No. GAO-09-133). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Liao, X., 2006. Creative Learning for Intelligent Robots (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Conte, L., 2011. Scouting Report. New York Times E7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lui, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Lui, 2009; Xiong and Ferrell, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Xiong and Ferrell, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Thompson et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomiA
ISSN (print)1517-7580

Other styles