How to format your references using the Forum for Social Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forum for Social Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
You, Y. (2010). Harnessing telecoms cables for science. Nature, 466(7307), 690–691.
A journal article with 2 authors
Levnajić, Z., & Pikovsky, A. (2014). Untangling complex dynamical systems via derivative-variable correlations. Scientific Reports, 4, 5030.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huey, R. B., Losos, J. B., & Moritz, C. (2010). Ecology. Are lizards toast? Science (New York, N.Y.), 328(5980), 832–833.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ruotolo, B. T., Giles, K., Campuzano, I., Sandercock, A. M., Bateman, R. H., & Robinson, C. V. (2005). Evidence for macromolecular protein rings in the absence of bulk water. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5754), 1658–1661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wen, S., & Huang, P. (2011). Principles of Tribology. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd.
An edited book
Nomura, T., Watanabe, T., & Habu, S. (Eds.). (2008). Humanized Mice (Vol. 324). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Bronshtein, I. N., Semendyayev, K. A., Musiol, G., & Mühlig, H. (2015). Algebra and Discrete Mathematics. In K. A. Semendyayev, G. Musiol, & H. Mühlig (Eds.), Handbook of Mathematics (pp. 323–431). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forum for Social Economics.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, December 18). NASA Sees Your Holiday Lights From Space. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1997). Aviation Safety: Installation of Smoke Detection and Fire Suppression Systems in U.S. Transport Aircraft (RCED-98-54R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McGrew, C. (2008). Living with Diabetes: The Value of Everyday Communication [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, J. (2016, December 30). ‘You Need to Change’: A Grandmother’s Words Help Turn a Life Around. New York Times, A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (You, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Levnajić & Pikovsky, 2014; You, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Levnajić & Pikovsky, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Huey et al., 2010)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ruotolo et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleForum for Social Economics
AbbreviationFor. Soc. Econ.
ISSN (print)0736-0932
ISSN (online)1874-6381
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Sociology and Political Science

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