How to format your references using the Forum for Social Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forum for Social Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Boyd, R. (2015). Charles H. Townes (1915-2015). Nature, 519(7543), 292.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blatt, R., & Wineland, D. (2008). Entangled states of trapped atomic ions. Nature, 453(7198), 1008–1015.
A journal article with 3 authors
Biteau, B., Labarre, J., & Toledano, M. B. (2003). ATP-dependent reduction of cysteine-sulphinic acid by S. cerevisiae sulphiredoxin. Nature, 425(6961), 980–984.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Imai, K. S., Levine, M., Satoh, N., & Satou, Y. (2006). Regulatory blueprint for a chordate embryo. Science (New York, N.Y.), 312(5777), 1183–1187.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gostick, A., & Elton, C. (2006). Führen mit Möhren. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Núñez, M., Nguyen, N. T., Camacho, D., & Trawiński, B. (Eds.). (2015). Computational Collective Intelligence: 7th International Conference, ICCCI 2015, Madrid, Spain, September 21-23, 2015, Proceedings, Part II (Vol. 9330). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lind, G. (2012). Moral Competence and Democratic Ways of Life. In W. G. Weber, M. Thoma, A. Ostendorf, & L. Chisholm (Eds.), Democratic Competences and Social Practices in Organizations (pp. 62–85). VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forum for Social Economics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, August 25). Big Questions About Risk Assessment Of Nanomaterials. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1974). Tools and Techniques for Improving the Efficiency of Federal Automatic Data Processing Operation (B-115369). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bao, J. (2010). Design enhancements in repetitive and interative learning control [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Flegenheimer, M., & Fitzsimmons, E. G. (2015, July 16). A Street Fight Between Uber and City Hall. New York Times, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Boyd, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Blatt & Wineland, 2008; Boyd, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Blatt & Wineland, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Biteau et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Imai et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleForum for Social Economics
AbbreviationFor. Soc. Econ.
ISSN (print)0736-0932
ISSN (online)1874-6381
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Sociology and Political Science

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