How to format your references using the Forum for Social Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forum for Social Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Carmeliet, P. (2001). Biomedicine. Clotting factors build blood vessels. Science (New York, N.Y.), 293(5535), 1602–1604.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ortíz-Barrientos, D., & Noor, M. A. F. (2005). Evidence for a one-allele assortative mating locus. Science (New York, N.Y.), 310(5753), 1467.
A journal article with 3 authors
Howes, P. D., Chandrawati, R., & Stevens, M. M. (2014). Bionanotechnology. Colloidal nanoparticles as advanced biological sensors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 346(6205), 1247390.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Westneat, M. W., Betz, O., Blob, R. W., Fezzaa, K., Cooper, W. J., & Lee, W.-K. (2003). Tracheal respiration in insects visualized with synchrotron x-ray imaging. Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5606), 558–560.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cardon, A., & Itmi, M. (2016). New Autonomous Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Calin, O. (2005). Geometric Mechanics on Riemannian Manifolds: Applications to Partial Differential Equations. (D.-C. Chang, Ed.). Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Ahonen, P., Alahuhta, P., Daskala, B., Delaitre, S., Hert, P. D., Lindner, R., … Verlinden, M. (2010). Threats and vulnerabilities. In P. Alahuhta, B. Daskala, S. Delaitre, P. D. Hert, R. Lindner, I. Maghiros, … E. Vildjiounaite (Eds.), Safeguards in a World of Ambient Intelligence (pp. 143–178). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forum for Social Economics.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, May 5). Five Reasons Not To Care About Climate Change. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1972). Teacher Corps Programs Operated by the Buffalo State University College, the New York University, and the Harlem Institute for Teachers (No. 089472). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Restrepo, E. (2009). Eventalizing blackness in Colombia (Doctoral dissertation). University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. (2005, December 26). Arts, Briefly; Returning Seized Art. New York Times, p. E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Carmeliet, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Carmeliet, 2001; Ortíz-Barrientos & Noor, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ortíz-Barrientos & Noor, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Howes, Chandrawati, & Stevens, 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Westneat et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleForum for Social Economics
AbbreviationFor. Soc. Econ.
ISSN (print)0736-0932
ISSN (online)1874-6381
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Sociology and Political Science

Other styles