How to format your references using the Forum for Social Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forum for Social Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Larson, R. G. (2007). Biophysics. Going with the flow. Science (New York, N.Y.), 318(5847), 57–58.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mannhart, J., & Schlom, D. G. (2010). Oxide interfaces--an opportunity for electronics. Science (New York, N.Y.), 327(5973), 1607–1611.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dick, H. J. B., Lin, J., & Schouten, H. (2003). An ultraslow-spreading class of ocean ridge. Nature, 426(6965), 405–412.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Serre, C., Mellot-Draznieks, C., Surblé, S., Audebrand, N., Filinchuk, Y., & Férey, G. (2007). Role of solvent-host interactions that lead to very large swelling of hybrid frameworks. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5820), 1828–1831.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Tagliani, M. (2009). The Practical Guide to Wall Street. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Huerta, J., Schade, S., & Granell, C. (Eds.). (2014). Connecting a Digital Europe Through Location and Place. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Lombardini, L. (2006). ECOPHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS IN DRY ENVIRONMENTS. In P. D’Odorico & A. Porporato (Eds.), Dryland Ecohydrology (pp. 47–65). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forum for Social Economics.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, March 29). Paralyzed Man Able To Move His Arm With His Thoughts In World-First Procedure. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2005). Highway Congestion: Intelligent Transportation Systems’ Promise for Managing Congestion Falls Short, and DOT Could Better Facilitate Their Strategic Use (GAO-05-943). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rahschulte, R. L. (2014). An Examination of the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Detect, Practice, and Repair versus Traditional Cover, Copy, and Compare Procedures: A Component Analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. (2016, October 27). Measure in Florida That Claims to Support Solar Power Could Discourage It. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Larson, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Larson, 2007; Mannhart & Schlom, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mannhart & Schlom, 2010)
  • Three authors: (Dick et al., 2003)
  • 6 or more authors: (Serre et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleForum for Social Economics
AbbreviationFor. Soc. Econ.
ISSN (print)0736-0932
ISSN (online)1874-6381
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Sociology and Political Science

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