How to format your references using the Forum for Social Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Forum for Social Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stratt, R. M. (2008). Chemistry. Nonlinear thinking about molecular energy transfer. Science (New York, N.Y.), 321(5897), 1789–1790.
A journal article with 2 authors
Apps, R., & Carrington, M. (2013). Response to Comment on “Influence of HLA-C expression level on HIV control.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 341(6151), 1175.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pouysségur, J., Dayan, F., & Mazure, N. M. (2006). Hypoxia signalling in cancer and approaches to enforce tumour regression. Nature, 441(7092), 437–443.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Seo, J. S., Whang, D., Lee, H., Jun, S. I., Oh, J., Jeon, Y. J., & Kim, K. (2000). A homochiral metal-organic porous material for enantioselective separation and catalysis. Nature, 404(6781), 982–986.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rasch, D., & Schott, D. (2015). Mathematische Statistik. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Lantada, A. D. (Ed.). (2013). Handbook on Advanced Design and Manufacturing Technologies for Biomedical Devices. Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Di Mauro, C., & Nordvik, J. P. (2010). Decision Support System for Crisis Management Planning. In A. Brugnoli (Ed.), Dangerous Materials: Control, Risk Prevention and Crisis Management: From New Global Threats to New Global Responses: A Picture of Transition (pp. 57–69). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Forum for Social Economics.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, February 27). Mass Extinction Helped Preserve the Tracks of Swimming Reptiles. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1980). Comments on S. 1961, a Bill Cited as the “Higher Education Amendments of 1980” (B-197030). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hawkins, A. J. (2013). Measurement of the spacial distribution of heat exchange in a geothermal analog bedrock site using fiber-otic distributed temperature sensing [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2013, August 28). Puig’s Popularity Reflects Growing Hispanic Interest. New York Times, B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stratt, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Apps & Carrington, 2013; Stratt, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Apps & Carrington, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Pouysségur et al., 2006)
  • 6 or more authors: (Seo et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleForum for Social Economics
AbbreviationFor. Soc. Econ.
ISSN (print)0736-0932
ISSN (online)1874-6381
ScopeEconomics and Econometrics
Sociology and Political Science

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