How to format your references using the Precision Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Precision Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Krammer PH. CD95’s deadly mission in the immune system. Nature 2000;407:789–95.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sutherland WJ, Burgman M. Policy advice: Use experts wisely. Nature 2015;526:317–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu Y, Grey F, Zheng Q. The high-speed sliding friction of graphene and novel routes to persistent superlubricity. Sci Rep 2014;4:4875.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Seisenberger G, Ried MU, Endress T, Büning H, Hallek M, Bräuchle C. Real-time single-molecule imaging of the infection pathway of an adeno-associated virus. Science 2001;294:1929–32.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Möller G. Geotechnik. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
Ramos-Casals M, Stone JH, Moutsopoulos HM, editors. Sjögren’s Syndrome: Diagnosis and Therapeutics. London: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Kuo C-H, Hung C-H. Genetics and Epigenetic Regulation in Allergic Diseases. In: Tao A, Raz E, editors. Allergy Bioinformatics, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015, p. 49–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Precision Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew E. Hubble Provides Information for Images of Early Milky Way. IFLScience 2013. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Protest Against Rejection of Bid. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dunbar S. Sideshow: An alluring dichotomy of illusion and humanity. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard B. Assad’s Lesson From Aleppo: Force Works. New York Times 2016:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePrecision Engineering
AbbreviationPrecis. Eng.
ISSN (print)0141-6359
ScopeGeneral Engineering

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