How to format your references using the Precision Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Precision Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Paillard D. Atmosphere. What drives the ice age cycle? Science 2006;313:455–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Ranta E, Kaitala V. Ecology. A leap for lion populations. Science 2005;307:365–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Sword GA, Lorch PD, Gwynne DT. Insect behaviour: migratory bands give crickets protection. Nature 2005;433:703.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Jung YK, Lee T, Shin E, Kim B-S. Highly tunable aptasensing microarrays with graphene oxide multilayers. Sci Rep 2013;3:3367.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Mitra A. Fundamentals of Quality Control and Improvement. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
[1]
Piccioli A. Bones: Orthopaedic Pathologies in Roman Imperial Age. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Hattori M. The C-Terminal Region of Reelin: Structure and Function. In: Fatemi SH, editor. Reelin Glycoprotein: Structure, Biology and Roles in Health and Disease, New York, NY: Springer; 2008, p. 49–56.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Precision Engineering.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. They Might Sound Gross, But Intestinal Worms Can Actually Be Good For You. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/they-might-sound-gross-intestinal-worms-can-actually-be-good-tor-you/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Transportation and Telecommunications Issue Area--Active Assignments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Meier MR. Exploring the effects of school calendars on student achievement. Doctoral dissertation. Lindenwood University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Wagner J. Bumgarner and Big Blast Leave Mets Blanked and Blue. New York Times 2016:B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titlePrecision Engineering
AbbreviationPrecis. Eng.
ISSN (print)0141-6359
ScopeGeneral Engineering

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