How to format your references using the Clinical and Translational Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Translational Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Jaenicke R (2005) Abundance of cellular material and proteins in the atmosphere. Science 308:73
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Wallenfang MR, Seydoux G (2000) Polarization of the anterior-posterior axis of C. elegans is a microtubule-directed process. Nature 408:89–92
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Gottfried JA, O’Doherty J, Dolan RJ (2003) Encoding predictive reward value in human amygdala and orbitofrontal cortex. Science 301:1104–1107
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Nelson CD, Perry SJ, Regier DS, et al (2007) Targeting of diacylglycerol degradation to M1 muscarinic receptors by beta-arrestins. Science 315:663–666

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Woolf G (2011) Tales of the Barbarians. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
1.
Howard A, Iagnemma K, Kelly A (2010) Field and Service Robotics: Results of the 7th International Conference. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Hill WG, Zhang X-S (2009) Maintaining Genetic Variation in Fitness. In: Werf J van der, Graser H-U, Frankham R, Gondro C (eds) Adaptation and Fitness in Animal Populations: Evolutionary and Breeding Perspectives on Genetic Resource Management. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 59–81

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Translational Imaging.

Blog post
1.
Andrews R (2016) CRISPR-Enabled Bacteria Transformed Into Self-Replicating Biological Hard Drive. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/crisprenabled-bacteria-transformed-into-selfreplicating-biological-hard-drive/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (1989) ADP Acquisition: Army Civilian Personnel System. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Mickels BJ (2010) A phenomenological research study on the formation of global business teams. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Wasik JF (2016) Accelerators Lend Help to a Business Idea Trying to Catch Fire. New York Times B2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Translational Imaging
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Imaging
ISSN (print)2281-5872
ISSN (online)2281-7565
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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