How to format your references using the Clinical and Translational Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Translational Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Korte M (2009) Neuroscience. Bridging the gap and staying local. Science 324:1527–1528
A journal article with 2 authors
Gelb MH, Hol WGJ (2002) Parasitology. Drugs to combat tropical protozoan parasites. Science 297:343–344
A journal article with 3 authors
Gilmore CK, McCarthy SE, Spelke ES (2007) Symbolic arithmetic knowledge without instruction. Nature 447:589–591
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Corsaro C, Mallamace D, Łojewska J, et al (2013) Molecular degradation of ancient documents revealed by 1H HR-MAS NMR spectroscopy. Sci Rep 3:2896

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gowler DB (2013) James Through the Centuries. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford
An edited book
Miller H, Grant L, Pomson A (2011) International Handbook of Jewish Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Spalding M (2009) Detecting and Monitoring Coral Bleaching Events. In: Oppen MJH van, Lough JM (eds) Coral Bleaching: Patterns, Processes, Causes and Consequences. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 69–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Translational Imaging.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2017) Robot Bees Vs Real Bees – Why Tiny Drones Can’t Compete With The Real Thing. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) DOD Education Benefits: Action Is Needed to Ensure Evaluations of Postsecondary Schools Are Useful. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Douglas L (2014) Thermogravimetric and Raman Investigations on the Mechanism of Decomposition of Lead Compounds on Tungsten Surfaces. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2002) World Business Briefing | Europe: Russia: Smart Thieves Fail To Outwit Police. New York Times A12

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Translational Imaging
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Imaging
ISSN (print)2281-5872
ISSN (online)2281-7565
ScopeRadiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles