How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Stevens CF. An evolutionary scaling law for the primate visual system and its basis in cortical function. Nature. 2001;411:193–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Fehr E, Fischbacher U. The nature of human altruism. Nature. 2003;425:785–91.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Burke MD, Berger EM, Schreiber SL. Generating diverse skeletons of small molecules combinatorially. Science. 2003;302:613–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Schroder A, Aeppli G, Coldea R, Adams M, Stockert O, v. Lohneysen H, et al. Onset of antiferromagnetism in heavy-fermion metals. Nature. 2000;407:351–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. d’Andria A, Gabarret I. Building 21st Century Entrepreneurship. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
1. Elsayes KM, editor. Cross-Sectional Imaging of the Abdomen and Pelvis: A Practical Algorithmic Approach. New York, NY: Springer; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Reddy N, Yang Y. Fibers from Sorghum Stems and Leaves. In: Yang Y, editor. Innovative Biofibers from Renewable Resources. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 11–2.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Nephrology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Incredible New Photos Of Pluto Show Blue Skies And Water Ice [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. The Army’s Multiple Launch Rocket System Is Progressing Well and Merits Continued Support. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982 Feb. Report No.: MASAD-82-13.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Blazer AE. “I Am Otherwise”: The Romance Between Poetry and Theory After the Death of the Subject [Doctoral dissertation]. [Columbus, OH]: Ohio State University; 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Fitzsimmons EG, Buettner R. Rail Crossing Accidents Decline Nationwide, but Less So in New York Region. New York Times. 2015 Feb 5;A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Nephrology
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Nephrol.
ISSN (print)1342-1751
ISSN (online)1437-7799
Physiology (medical)

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