How to format your references using the Clinical and Experimental Nephrology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical and Experimental Nephrology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Wilczek F. An explorer and surveyor. Nature. 2005;437:1095.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Pfisterer AB, Schmid B. Diversity-dependent production can decrease the stability of ecosystem functioning. Nature. 2002;416:84–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Katz RF, Spiegelman M, Holtzman B. The dynamics of melt and shear localization in partially molten aggregates. Nature. 2006;442:676–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Petit L, Svane A, Szotek Z, Temmerman WM. First-principles calculations of PuO(2+/-x). Science. 2003;301:498–501.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Nations S. The Complete Book of Option Spreads and Combinations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
1. Watkinson JC, Scott-Coombes DM, editors. Tips and Tricks in Endocrine Surgery. London: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ahmed N. Weak Compactness in the Space of Operator Valued Measures and Optimal Control. In: Hömberg D, Tröltzsch F, editors. System Modeling and Optimization: 25th IFIP TC 7 Conference, CSMO 2011, Berlin, Germany, September 12-16, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 49–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical and Experimental Nephrology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Dear parents, you are being lied to [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. NOAA Satellites. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996 Sep. Report No.: AIMD-96-141R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. King GD. Public Works Directors’ Perceptions of the Effects of Stakeholders on Environmental Policies in California Cities [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. CHRISTOPHER KELLY; Christopher Kelly is a fellow in ancient history at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Paganism Was Alive and Well. New York Times. 1990 Sep 23;743.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical and Experimental Nephrology
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Nephrol.
ISSN (print)1342-1751
ISSN (online)1437-7799
Physiology (medical)

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