How to format your references using the Culture and Organization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture and Organization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Morris, Mark. 2006. “Astronomy. Galactic Prominences on the Rise.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5796): 70–71.
A journal article with 2 authors
Farmer, C. G., and Kent Sanders. 2010. “Unidirectional Airflow in the Lungs of Alligators.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5963): 338–340.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stott, Lowell, Axel Timmermann, and Robert Thunell. 2007. “Southern Hemisphere and Deep-Sea Warming Led Deglacial Atmospheric CO2 Rise and Tropical Warming.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5849): 435–438.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chu, Leiqiang, Hennrik Schmidt, Jiang Pu, Shunfeng Wang, Barbaros Ozyilmaz, Taishi Takenobu, and Goki Eda. 2014. “Charge Transport in Ion-Gated Mono-, Bi-, and Trilayer MoS2 Field Effect Transistors.” Scientific Reports 4 (December): 7293.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernando, Xavier N. 2014. Radio Over Fiber for Wireless Communications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sheehan, William. 2015. Galactic Encounters: Our Majestic and Evolving Star-System, From the Big Bang to Time’s End. Edited by Christopher J. Conselice. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Debats, Nienke B., Idsart Kingma, Peter J. Beek, and Jeroen B. J. Smeets. 2012. “The Precision of ‘Haptic’ Rod Length Perception Is Reduced by Lack of Visual Precision.” In Haptics: Perception, Devices, Mobility, and Communication: International Conference, EuroHaptics 2012, Tampere, Finland, June 13-15, 2012 Proceedings, Part II, edited by Poika Isokoski and Jukka Springare, 19–24. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture and Organization.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Study Suggests Newborns Delivered By C-Section Have a Higher Risk of Developing Chronic Health Problems.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. National Airspace System: Status of Wide Area Augmentation System Project. RCED-98-79. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Seidel, Jayna G. 2015. “Adolescent Female Stress Management Curriculum.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, Kelly. 2007. “Sandwiches From an Heirloom.” New York Times, October 14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Morris 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Morris 2006; Farmer and Sanders 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Farmer and Sanders 2010)
  • Three authors: (Stott, Timmermann, and Thunell 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture and Organization
AbbreviationCult. Organ.
ISSN (print)1475-9551
ISSN (online)1477-2760
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Cultural Studies

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