How to format your references using the Culture and Organization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture and Organization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lerdau, Manuel. 2007. “Ecology. A Positive Feedback with Negative Consequences.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5822): 212–213.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barbi, Elisabetta, and James W. Vaupel. 2005. “Comment on ‘Inflammatory Exposure and Historical Changes in Human Life-Spans.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 308 (5729): 1743; author reply 1743.
A journal article with 3 authors
Robinson, Iain M., Ravi Ranjan, and Thomas L. Schwarz. 2002. “Synaptotagmins I and IV Promote Transmitter Release Independently of Ca(2+) Binding in the C(2)A Domain.” Nature 418 (6895): 336–340.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Krivorotov, I. N., N. C. Emley, J. C. Sankey, S. I. Kiselev, D. C. Ralph, and R. A. Buhrman. 2005. “Time-Domain Measurements of Nanomagnet Dynamics Driven by Spin-Transfer Torques.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 307 (5707): 228–231.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berto, Francesco. 2009. There’s Something about Gödel. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Cunha, José C., and Omer F. Rana, eds. 2006. Grid Computing: Software Environments and Tools. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Taródi, Béla. 2007. “Human Herpesvirus 6 and Human Herpesvirus 7.” In Latency Strategies of Herpesviruses, edited by Janos Minarovits, Eva Gonczol, and Tibor Valyi-Nagy, 86–101. Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture and Organization.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Why Do We Age?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Airline Competition: Weak Financial Structure Threatens Competition. RCED-91-110. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Holman, Rebecca. 2014. “Music History Pedagogy: Three Approaches to Teaching a One-Semester Music History Survey Course in Accordance with the LEAP Initiative.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, Erin. 1999. “Crosstown Rivalry: Mothers Inc.” New York Times, May 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lerdau 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Lerdau 2007; Barbi and Vaupel 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barbi and Vaupel 2005)
  • Three authors: (Robinson, Ranjan, and Schwarz 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Krivorotov et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture and Organization
AbbreviationCult. Organ.
ISSN (print)1475-9551
ISSN (online)1477-2760
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Cultural Studies

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