How to format your references using the Culture and Organization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Culture and Organization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Check, Erika. 2002. “Alternative Therapies Leave US Commission Divided.” Nature 416 (6879): 355.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ho, Lena, and Gerald R. Crabtree. 2010. “Chromatin Remodelling during Development.” Nature 463 (7280): 474–484.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hu, Yilin, Chi Chung Lee, and Markus W. Ribbe. 2011. “Extending the Carbon Chain: Hydrocarbon Formation Catalyzed by Vanadium/Molybdenum Nitrogenases.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 333 (6043): 753–755.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Banavar, Jayanth R., John Damuth, Amos Maritan, and Andrea Rinaldo. 2002. “Ontogenetic Growth: Modelling Universality and Scaling.” Nature 420 (6916): 626; discussion 626-7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Münch, Volker. 2009. Patente, Marken, Design von A Bis Z. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Holden, Helge. 2015. Front Tracking for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws. Edited by Nils Henrik Risebro. 2nd ed. 2015. Vol. 152. Applied Mathematical Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Buchholz, Tracy A., David A. Madary, Dean Bork, and Tamim Younos. 2016. “Stream Restoration in Urban Environments: Concept, Design Principles, and Case Studies of Stream Daylighting.” In Sustainable Water Management in Urban Environments, edited by Tamim Younos and Tammy E. Parece, 121–165. The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Culture and Organization.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Amphibious Fishes In Hot Water Cool Themselves By Jumping Out.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2009. International Space Station: Significant Challenges May Limit Onboard Research. GAO-10-9. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Builes, Alexander J. 2015. “Inferring Function: A Study of Three Prehistoric Structures in El Pital, Puerto López, Manabí, Ecuador.” Doctoral dissertation, Boca Raton, FL: Florida Atlantic University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neal, Linda. 2010. “Quotation of the Day.” New York Times, April 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Check 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Check 2002; Ho and Crabtree 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ho and Crabtree 2010)
  • Three authors: (Hu, Lee, and Ribbe 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Banavar et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleCulture and Organization
AbbreviationCult. Organ.
ISSN (print)1475-9551
ISSN (online)1477-2760
ScopeOrganizational Behavior and Human Resource Management
Cultural Studies

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