How to format your references using the Citizen Science: Theory and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marshall, E., 2008. Clinical trials and tribulations. Lemons, oranges, and complexity. Introduction, Science (New York, N.Y.), 322(5899): 209.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krupovic, M. and Koonin, E.V., 2014. Evolution of eukaryotic single-stranded DNA viruses of the Bidnaviridae family from genes of four other groups of widely different viruses, Scientific reports, 4: 5347.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCarty, K.F., Nobel, J.A. and Bartelt, N.C., 2001. Vacancies in solids and the stability of surface morphology, Nature, 412(6847): 622–625.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Neder, I., Ofek, N., Chung, Y., Heiblum, M., Mahalu, D. and Umansky, V., 2007. Interference between two indistinguishable electrons from independent sources, Nature, 448(7151): 333–337.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baban, T.M., 2016. Shallow Foundations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Vaidyanathan, S., Harrigan, G.G., and Goodacre, R. (eds.), 2005. Metabolome Analyses: Strategies for Systems Biology. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Broda, S., Cavadas, S., Ferreira, M. and Moreira, N., 2015. Deciding Synchronous Kleene Algebra with Derivatives. In: Drewes, F. (ed.) Implementation and Application of Automata: 20th International Conference, CIAA 2015, Umeå, Sweden, August 18-21, 2015, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 49–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Live Webcast: Three Astronauts Head to ISS. IFLScience, 28 May 2014. Available at [Last accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Measuring Performance: Challenges in Evaluating Research and Development.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wu, D.-M.C., 2010. Function and regulation of Drosophila myc during wing growth. Doctoral dissertation. New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wingfield, N. and de la MERCED, M.J., 2017. Amazon to Buy Whole Foods For $13 Billion. New York Times, 16 June, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marshall 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Krupovic and Koonin 2014; Marshall 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Krupovic and Koonin 2014)
  • Three authors: (McCarty, Nobel and Bartelt 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Neder et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleCitizen Science: Theory and Practice
AbbreviationCitiz. Sci. Theory Pr.
ISSN (online)2057-4991

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