How to format your references using the Citizen Science: Theory and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas, P.C., 2011. Planetary science. Cold-trapping Mars’ atmosphere, Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6031): 797–798.
A journal article with 2 authors
Williams, B.G. and Dye, C., 2003. Antiretroviral drugs for tuberculosis control in the era of HIV/AIDS, Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5639): 1535–1537.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ledingham, K.W.D., McKenna, P. and Singhal, R.P., 2003. Applications for nuclear phenomena generated by ultra-intense lasers, Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5622): 1107–1111.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lieberman, E., Michel, J.-B., Jackson, J., Tang, T. and Nowak, M.A., 2007. Quantifying the evolutionary dynamics of language, Nature, 449(7163): 713–716.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zito, R., 2011. Electrochemical Water Processing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Leszczynski, J. and Shukla, M.K. (eds.), 2012. Practical Aspects of Computational Chemistry I: An Overview of the Last Two Decades and Current Trends. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Zandvliet, D.B., Holmes, M. and Starzner, M., 2011. Seaquaria in Schools. In: Yore, L.D., Flier-Keller, E.V. der, Blades, D.W., Pelton, T.W., and Zandvliet, D.B. (eds.) Pacific CRYSTAL Centre for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Literacy: Lessons Learned. Rotterdam: SensePublishers. pp. 83–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Lips are the Most Exposed Erogenous Zone, Which Makes Kissing Feel Very Good. IFLScience, 6 July 2015. Available at [Last accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. Federal Agency Roles and Responsibilities for Emergency Communications Need Clarification.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Graham, S.M., 2017. Conditions that Prompt the Migrant Worker Population to Access Pre-Hospital Emergency Care in Place of Health Centers in Qatar. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Blanchard, K., 2010. Let the Pill Go Free. New York Times, 22 June, A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Thomas 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Thomas 2011; Williams and Dye 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Williams and Dye 2003)
  • Three authors: (Ledingham, McKenna and Singhal 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lieberman et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleCitizen Science: Theory and Practice
AbbreviationCitiz. Sci. Theory Pr.
ISSN (online)2057-4991

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