How to format your references using the Citizen Science: Theory and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hughes, A.L., 2002. Strength in numbers, Nature, 417(6891): 795.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gross, R.A. and Kalra, B., 2002. Biodegradable polymers for the environment, Science (New York, N.Y.), 297(5582): 803–807.
A journal article with 3 authors
Delsuc, F., Phillips, M.J. and Penny, D., 2003. Comment on ‘Hexapod origins: monophyletic or paraphyletic?’, Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5639): 1482; author reply 1482.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mahendiran, K., Elie, C., Nebel, J.-C., Ryan, A. and Pierscionek, B.K., 2014. Primary sequence contribution to the optical function of the eye lens, Scientific reports, 4: 5195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Howe, T.R., 2011. Marriages & Families in the 21st Century. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Eder, K., Lourenço, J., and Shehory, O. (eds.), 2012. Hardware and Software: Verification and Testing: 7th International Haifa Verification Conference, HVC 2011, Haifa, Israel, December 6-8, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Garner, G., 2013. Trends and Issues: The Consumption and Sustainability of Digital Media in the Modern Global Economy. In: Orey, M., Jones, S.A., and Branch, R.M. (eds.) Educational Media and Technology Yearbook: Volume 37. Educational Media and Technology Yearbook. New York, NY: Springer. pp. 45–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. Is There Life On Mars?. IFLScience, 8 March 2017. Available at [Last accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Amtrak: Improved Management and Controls over Food and Beverage Service Needed.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yuan, S., 2008. Aberrations of anamorphic optical systems. Doctoral dissertation. Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G., 2011. Welcoming Back N.B.A. With Open Yawns. New York Times, 29 November, B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hughes 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Gross and Kalra 2002; Hughes 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gross and Kalra 2002)
  • Three authors: (Delsuc, Phillips and Penny 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mahendiran et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCitizen Science: Theory and Practice
AbbreviationCitiz. Sci. Theory Pr.
ISSN (online)2057-4991

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