How to format your references using the Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stehfest E. Diet: Food choices for health and planet. Nature 2014; 515: 501–502.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hagan J, Palloni A. Social science. Death in Darfur. Science 2006; 313: 1578–1579.
A journal article with 3 authors
Steck DA, Oskay WH, Raizen MG. Observation of chaos-assisted tunneling between islands of stability. Science 2001; 293: 274–278.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yasuda H, Kobayashi M, Yasuda Y, Tsutsui T. Estimation of autistic children by metallomics analysis. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 1199.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Modarres M, Amiri M, Jackson C. Probabilistic Physics of Failure Approach to Reliability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2017.
An edited book
Hashim H, Reynard J, Cowan NC, Wood D, Armenakas N (eds.). Urological Emergencies In Clinical Practice. 2nd ed. 2013. London: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Elzinga A. An Evaluation of the Achievements of the First International Polar Year. In: Barr S, Luedecke C (eds.) The History of the International Polar Years (IPYs). From Pole to Pole. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010; 109–126.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Discover A Way To Heal A Broken Heart. IFLScience 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport Improvement Program: Allocation of Funds From 1982 to 1992. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beck K. Comparing high school physics standards: What is included and what is not. 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pastan L. The Bridge. New York Times. October 9, 2015:MM28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
AbbreviationPharmacoepidemiol. Drug Saf.
ISSN (print)1053-8569
ISSN (online)1099-1557
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles