How to format your references using the Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Graham-Rowe D. Overview: Multiple lines of attack. Nature 2011; 480: S34-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen Y, Schier AF. The zebrafish Nodal signal Squint functions as a morphogen. Nature 2001; 411: 607–610.
A journal article with 3 authors
Duan Q, Goodale E, Quan R-C. Bird fruit preferences match the frequency of fruit colours in tropical Asia. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 5627.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Shen W, Flajolet M, Greengard P, Surmeier DJ. Dichotomous dopaminergic control of striatal synaptic plasticity. Science 2008; 321: 848–851.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Robertson B, Vignaux GA, Berger CEH. Interpreting Evidence. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
Wierzbicki AP, Nakamori Y (eds.). Creative Environments: Issues of Creativity Support for the Knowledge Civilization Age. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Premo LS. Mobility and Cultural Diversity in Central-Place Foragers: Implications for the Emergence of Modern Human Behavior. In: Mesoudi A, Aoki K (eds.) Learning Strategies and Cultural Evolution during the Palaeolithic. Tokyo: Springer Japan, 2015; 45–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Watch NASA’s “All About That Space” Parody Music Video. IFLScience 2014. Available at: Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Preliminary Information on the Federal Government’s Response to Recent Natural Disasters. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chaisson C. An Investigation of Lower Wilcox Group Coals in Portions of Avoyelles, Catahoula, Concordia, Grant, Lasalle, and Rapides Parishes, Louisiana. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. These Avian Marauders Are Less Than Fierce. New York Times. September 16, 2016:C8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
AbbreviationPharmacoepidemiol. Drug Saf.
ISSN (print)1053-8569
ISSN (online)1099-1557
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles