How to format your references using the Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Kerr RA. PALEONTOLOGY: Biggest Extinction Hit Land and Sea. Science 2000; 289: 1666b–7b.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Stewart I, Cohen J. Monolith. Nature 2000; 408: 913.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Walsh KJ, Richardson DC, Michel P. Rotational breakup as the origin of small binary asteroids. Nature 2008; 454: 188–191.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Mashimo T, Kaneko T, Sakuma T, et al. Efficient gene targeting by TAL effector nucleases coinjected with exonucleases in zygotes. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 1253.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Tagliamonte SA. Making Waves. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc, 2015.
An edited book
1.
Sauerwein W, Wittig A, Moss R, Nakagawa Y (eds.). Neutron Capture Therapy: Principles and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Luks AM, Glenny RW, Robertson HT. Interpreting the Results of Cardiopulmonary Exercise Tests. In: Glenny RW, Robertson HT (eds.) Introduction to Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing. New York, NY: Springer, 2013; 53–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. Your Brain Might Multitask By Heightening One Sense While Dampening Another. IFLScience 2015. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/brain/your-brain-might-be-multitasking-heightening-one-sense-expense-another/. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Stronger Development Practices and Investment Planning Needed to Address Continuing Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Arab AA. Finite Element Modeling of Pretensioned Concrete Girders: A Methodological Approach with Applications in Large Strands and End Zone Cracking. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Greenhouse L. Justices, Voting 5-4, Limit the Use of Race In Integration Plans. New York Times. June 29, 2007:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titlePharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
AbbreviationPharmacoepidemiol. Drug Saf.
ISSN (print)1053-8569
ISSN (online)1099-1557
ScopeEpidemiology
Pharmacology (medical)

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