How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Education Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Education Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Krauss, T. F. (2005). Physics. Control at the quantum level. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5725), 1122–1123.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wan, Z., & Zhang, G. (2014). Controlled synthesis and visible light photocatalytic activity of Bi12GeO20 uniform microcrystals. Scientific reports, 4, 6298.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson, D. G., Burdick, J. A., & Langer, R. (2004). Materials science. Smart biomaterials. Science (New York, N.Y.), 305(5692), 1923–1924.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Liu, B.-H., Wißmann, S., Hu, X.-M., Zhang, C., Huang, Y.-F., Li, C.-F., et al. (2014). Locality and universality of quantum memory effects. Scientific reports, 4, 6327.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dujmović, D., Androić, B., & Lukačević, I. (2014). Composite Structures According to Eurocode 4. D-69451 Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH.
An edited book
Tyring, S. K. (Ed.). (2006). Mucosal Immunology and Virology. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sivaraman, K. R., & Allemann, N. (2015). Anterior Segment Considerations in Boston Type I Keratoprosthesis. In M. S. Cortina & J. de la Cruz (Eds.), Keratoprostheses and Artificial Corneas: Fundamentals and Surgical Applications (pp. 27–33). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Education Review.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2015, October 17). How A Shark Attack Saved A Man’s Life. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Aviation Safety: Enhanced Requirements Can Improve Commuter Pilot Training (No. RCED-88-218). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gillan-Sanderson, N. A. (2012). A Study of the Effect of Additional Reading Assistance on Student Achievement (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G. (2010, December 29). Truth Lurks In Spoof Of Singletary. New York Times, p. B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Krauss 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Krauss 2005; Wan and Zhang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wan and Zhang 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Education Review
AbbreviationAsia Pac. Educ. Rev.
ISSN (print)1598-1037
ISSN (online)1876-407X

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