How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Education Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Education Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crouch, T. (2013). Harold Melvin Agnew (1921-2013). Nature, 503(7474), 40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Collins, F. S., & Manolio, T. A. (2007). Merging and emerging cohorts: necessary but not sufficient. Nature, 445(7125), 259.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang, Y., Chen, G., & Zhang, C. (2013). Tunable spin-orbit coupling and quantum phase transition in a trapped Bose-Einstein condensate. Scientific reports, 3, 1937.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Balagaddé, F. K., You, L., Hansen, C. L., Arnold, F. H., & Quake, S. R. (2005). Long-term monitoring of bacteria undergoing programmed population control in a microchemostat. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5731), 137–140.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brook, M. V. (2011). Ultrasonic Inspection Technology Development and Search Unit Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Felleisen, M., & Gardner, P. (Eds.). (2013). Programming Languages and Systems: 22nd European Symposium on Programming, ESOP 2013, Held as Part of the European Joint Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2013, Rome, Italy, March 16-24, 2013. Proceedings (Vol. 7792). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Daugstad, K. (2011). The Participatory Dimension in Nature Conservation Processes: Examples of Ideology and Practice from Norway. In M. Jones & M. Stenseke (Eds.), The European Landscape Convention: Challenges of Participation (pp. 67–79). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Education Review.

Blog post
Taub, B. (2016, December 14). Oxytocin May Make You Better At Keeping A Beat. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1993). High Speed Ground Transportation: Funds Need to Be Focused Under Proposed Legislation (No. T-RCED-93-45). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Karmacharya, B. (2015). Population Dynamics of Northern Cardinal and Carolina Wren in an Urban Forest Fragment: Safe Refuge or Ecological Trap? (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin, J. (2017, July 6). ‘Central Park Jogger’ Series on Netflix. New York Times, p. C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crouch 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Collins and Manolio 2007; Crouch 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Collins and Manolio 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Balagaddé et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Education Review
AbbreviationAsia Pac. Educ. Rev.
ISSN (print)1598-1037
ISSN (online)1876-407X

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