How to format your references using the Asia Pacific Education Review citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Asia Pacific Education Review. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weydt, P. (2000). Biomedical centre memorial to victims of Nazi research. Nature, 403(6772), 816.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ellis, G., & Silk, J. (2014). Scientific method: Defend the integrity of physics. Nature, 516(7531), 321–323.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pereira, H. M., Borda-de-Água, L., & Martins, I. S. (2012). Geometry and scale in species-area relationships. Nature, 482(7386), E3-4; author reply E5-6.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Murakami, M., Ohte, N., Suzuki, T., Ishii, N., Igarashi, Y., & Tanoi, K. (2014). Biological proliferation of cesium-137 through the detrital food chain in a forest ecosystem in Japan. Scientific reports, 4, 3599.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Misstear, B., Banks, D., & Clark, L. (2017). Water Wells and Boreholes. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Michelfelder, D. P., McCarthy, N., & Goldberg, D. E. (Eds.). (2013). Philosophy and Engineering: Reflections on Practice, Principles and Process (Vol. 15). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Motizuki, K., Ido, H., Itoh, T., & Morifuji, M. (2010). Itinerant Electron Theory of Magnetism of Cu2Sb-Type Compounds. In H. Ido, T. Itoh, & M. Morifuji (Eds.), Electronic Structure and Magnetism of 3d-Transition Metal Pnictides (pp. 127–138). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Asia Pacific Education Review.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 25). When An Antarctic Iceberg The Size Of A Country Breaks Away, What Happens Next? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Freight Railroads: Updated Information on Rates and Other Industry Trends (No. GAO-07-291R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Slayton, K. A. (2013). A psychoeducational support group for families of youth experiencing symptoms of schizophrenia: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, M. (1993, October 31). David Gergen, Master of THE GAME. New York Times, p. 664.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weydt 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Ellis and Silk 2014; Weydt 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ellis and Silk 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Murakami et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleAsia Pacific Education Review
AbbreviationAsia Pac. Educ. Rev.
ISSN (print)1598-1037
ISSN (online)1876-407X

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