How to format your references using the American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Neill LAJ. Immunology. After the toll rush. Science. 2004;303(5663):1481-1482.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sheehan PM, Harris MT. Microbialite resurgence after the Late Ordovician extinction. Nature. 2004;430(6995):75-78.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nugent FS, Penick EC, Kauer JA. Opioids block long-term potentiation of inhibitory synapses. Nature. 2007;446(7139):1086-1090.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Svensen H, Planke S, Malthe-Sørenssen A, et al. Release of methane from a volcanic basin as a mechanism for initial Eocene global warming. Nature. 2004;429(6991):542-545.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang S-L. Raman Spectroscopy and Its Application in Nanostructures. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Khalil MM, ed. Basic Sciences of Nuclear Medicine. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Precup D, Keller PW, Duguay F-O. RedAgent: An Autonomous, Market-based Supply-Chain Management Agent for the Trading Agents Competition. In: Chaib-draa B, Müller JP, eds. Multiagent Based Supply Chain Management. Springer; 2006:135-154.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy.

Blog post
Andrew D. Scientific Theories Aren’t Mere Conjecture – to Survive They Must Work. IFLScience. Published March 9, 2017. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. ADP System: Patent Office’s Contract Renegotiation Behind Schedule. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
De La Cruz E. School social work programing for an elementary school: A grant writing project. Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg B. Young Stars Climb Rankings, Jolting Russia’s Dormant Men’s Game to Life. New York Times. January 17, 2017:B9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleAmerican Journal of Health-System Pharmacy
AbbreviationAm. J. Health. Syst. Pharm.
ISSN (print)1079-2082
ISSN (online)1535-2900
ScopeHealth Policy

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