How to format your references using the China Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for China Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alvarez, M., 2007. A question of supply and demand. Nature 445, 124.
A journal article with 2 authors
Andersson, A.F., Banfield, J.F., 2008. Virus population dynamics and acquired virus resistance in natural microbial communities. Science 320, 1047–1050.
A journal article with 3 authors
Indjeian, V.B., Stern, B.M., Murray, A.W., 2005. The centromeric protein Sgo1 is required to sense lack of tension on mitotic chromosomes. Science 307, 130–133.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kim, J.Y., Oh, M.-W., Lee, S., Cho, Y.C., Yoon, J.-H., Lee, G.W., Cho, C.-R., Park, C.H., Jeong, S.-Y., 2014. Abnormal drop in electrical resistivity with impurity doping of single-crystal Ag. Sci. Rep. 4, 5450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Promislow, S.D., 2010. Fundamentals of Actuarial Mathematics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Romano, S.D., 2011. Dielectric Spectroscopy in Biodiesel Production and Characterization, Green Energy and Technology. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Yokobori, T., 2006. ICF contribution to fracture research in the second half of the 20th century, in: Carpinteri, A., Mai, Y.-W., Ritchie, R.O. (Eds.), Advances in Fracture Research: Honour and Plenary Lectures Presented at the 11th International Conference on Fracture (ICF11), Held in Turin, Italy, on March 20–25, 2005. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 37–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for China Geology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. Black Hole Might Be Hiding Inside A Nebula [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Schedule Delays and Cost Overruns Plague DOD Automated Information Systems (No. T-IMTEC-89-8). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kwon, Y., 2009. Extreme value estimators: Their long memory feature and forecasting performances in the U.S. stock indexes (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C., 2008. For Many, Thrift Shops Are a Wardrobe Essential. New York Times C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Alvarez, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Alvarez, 2007; Andersson and Banfield, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Andersson and Banfield, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Kim et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleChina Geology
ISSN (print)2096-5192

Other styles