How to format your references using the Ecological Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith, K., 2010. Treatment frontiers. Nature 466, S15-8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gasteiger, H.A., Marković, N.M., 2009. Chemistry. Just a dream--or future reality? Science 324, 48–49.
A journal article with 3 authors
Frumkin, A., Shimron, A., Rosenbaum, J., 2003. Radiometric dating of the Siloam Tunnel, Jerusalem. Nature 425, 169–171.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Grigsby, C.L., Ho, Y.-P., Lin, C., Engbersen, J.F.J., Leong, K.W., 2013. Microfluidic preparation of polymer-nucleic acid nanocomplexes improves nonviral gene transfer. Sci. Rep. 3, 3155.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Armstrong, R.A., Hilton, A.C., 2010. Statistical Analysis in Microbiology: Statnotes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Goloubeva, O., 2006. Software-Implemented Hardware Fault Tolerance. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Gardiner, J.M., Atema, J., 2014. Flow Sensing in Sharks: Lateral Line Contributions to Navigation and Prey Capture, in: Bleckmann, H., Mogdans, J., Coombs, S.L. (Eds.), Flow Sensing in Air and Water: Behavioral, Neural and Engineering Principles of Operation. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 127–146.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Modelling.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. A “Hog Apocalypse” Could Be Heading For Feral Pigs In Texas [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. FAA Staffing: Challenges in Managing Shortages in the Maintenance Work Force (No. RCED-87-137). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Megowan, G., 2012. A correlation study of emotional intelligence and behavioral style of bio-pharmaceutical industry District Sales Managers (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G., 2013. Superman at 75: Still Going Strong. New York Times C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smith, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Gasteiger and Marković, 2009; Smith, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gasteiger and Marković, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Grigsby et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Modelling
AbbreviationEcol. Modell.
ISSN (print)0304-3800
ScopeEcological Modelling

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