How to format your references using the Ecological Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greene, M.T., 2000. High achiever. Nature 407, 947.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bernays, E.A., Singer, M.S., 2005. Insect defences: taste alteration and endoparasites. Nature 436, 476.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chu, R., Reczek, D., Brondyk, W., 2014. Capture-stabilize approach for membrane protein SPR assays. Sci. Rep. 4, 7360.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Qin, L.C., Zhao, X., Hirahara, K., Miyamoto, Y., Ando, Y., Iijima, S., 2000. The smallest carbon nanotube. Nature 408, 50.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLean, D., 2012. Understanding Aerodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Angelici, F.M. (Ed.), 2016. Problematic Wildlife: A Cross-Disciplinary Approach. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Wang, S., Agrawal, D., El Abbadi, A., 2011. A Comprehensive Framework for Secure Query Processing on Relational Data in the Cloud, in: Jonker, W., Petković, M. (Eds.), Secure Data Management: 8th VLDB Workshop, SDM 2011, Seattle, WA, USA, September 2, 2011, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 52–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Modelling.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. The Universe Isn’t Accelerating As Fast As We Thought [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. Telecommunications: Challenges to Assessing and Improving Telecommunications For Native Americans on Tribal Lands (No. GAO-06-189). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson, D.M., 2015. Prison nursery programs: Measuring society’s perceptions and support (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
George, R., 2011. Flying the Flag, Fleeing The State. New York Times A25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greene, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bernays and Singer, 2005; Greene, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bernays and Singer, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Qin et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Modelling
AbbreviationEcol. Modell.
ISSN (print)0304-3800
ScopeEcological Modelling

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