How to format your references using the Ecological Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Burkov, A., 2015. PHYSICS. Chiral anomaly without relativity. Science 350, 378–379.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meguro, A., Sato, Y., 2014. Salicylic acid antagonizes abscisic acid inhibition of shoot growth and cell cycle progression in rice. Sci. Rep. 4, 4555.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, J., Zhu, L., Gummerum, M., 2014. The relationship between moral judgment and cooperation in children with high-functioning autism. Sci. Rep. 4, 4314.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Petford, N., Cruden, A.R., McCaffrey, K.J., Vigneresse, J.L., 2000. Granite magma formation, transport and emplacement in the Earth’s crust. Nature 408, 669–673.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
El-Haik, B., Roy, D.M., 2005. Service Design for Six Sigma. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Dijkman, R., Hofstetter, J., Koehler, J. (Eds.), 2011. Business Process Model and Notation: Third International Workshop, BPMN 2011, Lucerne, Switzerland, November 21-22, 2011. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ebenstein, A.Y., Jennings, E., 2009. Bare Branches, Prostitution, and HIV in China: A~Demographic Analysis, in: Poston, D.L., Tucker, J., Ren, Q., Gu, B., Zheng, X., Wang, S., Russell, C. (Eds.), Gender Policy and HIV in China: Catalyzing Policy Change, The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 71–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Modelling.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2017. Male Peacocks Spend Most Their Time Checking Out Guys And Ignoring Females [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2002. Air Traffic Control: Impact of Revised Personnel Relocation Policies Is Uncertain (No. GAO-03-141). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Momcheva, I.G., 2009. Environments of strong gravitational lenses (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2013. A.I.G. Seeks Approval To File More Bank Suits. New York Times B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Burkov, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Burkov, 2015; Meguro and Sato, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meguro and Sato, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Petford et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Modelling
AbbreviationEcol. Modell.
ISSN (print)0304-3800
ScopeEcological Modelling

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