How to format your references using the Ecological Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schübeler, D., 2015. Function and information content of DNA methylation. Nature 517, 321–326.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bedalov, A., Simon, J.A., 2004. Neuroscience. NAD to the rescue. Science 305, 954–955.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lu, K., Lu, L., Suresh, S., 2009. Strengthening materials by engineering coherent internal boundaries at the nanoscale. Science 324, 349–352.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wengelnik, K., Vidal, V., Ancelin, M.L., Cathiard, A.-M., Morgat, J.L., Kocken, C.H., Calas, M., Herrera, S., Thomas, A.W., Vial, H.J., 2002. A class of potent antimalarials and their specific accumulation in infected erythrocytes. Science 295, 1311–1314.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gottlieb, I., 2009. Next Generation Excel. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2 Clementi Loop, #02-01, Singapore 129809.
An edited book
Papasratorn, B., Chutimaskul, W., Porkaew, K., Vanijja, V. (Eds.), 2009. Advances in Information Technology: Third International Conference, IAIT 2009, Bangkok, Thailand, December 1-5, 2009. Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhbanova, E.V., Zubov, L.M., 2016. The Influence of Distributed Dislocations on Large Deformations of an Elastic Sphere, in: Naumenko, K., Aßmus, M. (Eds.), Advanced Methods of Continuum Mechanics for Materials and Structures, Advanced Structured Materials. Springer, Singapore, pp. 61–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Modelling.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. How Cute Things Hijack Our Brains And Drive Behaviour [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1973. Request for Reformation of Contract (No. B-178078). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
George, K.G., 2017. Revisiting “The Blue Line Blues”: Transit-Oriented Development in Inner-City Areas of Los Angeles County, 2000-2016 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kurdewan, J., 2016. Bill Cunningham, Unpublished. New York Times ST4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schübeler, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Bedalov and Simon, 2004; Schübeler, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bedalov and Simon, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Wengelnik et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Modelling
AbbreviationEcol. Modell.
ISSN (print)0304-3800
ScopeEcological Modelling

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