How to format your references using the Ecological Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bradley, A., 2002. Mining the mouse genome. Nature 420, 512–514.
A journal article with 2 authors
Poinar, G.O., Jr, Danforth, B.N., 2006. A fossil bee from Early Cretaceous Burmese amber. Science 314, 614.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zahidi, E.M., Oudghiri-Hassani, H., McBreen, P.H., 2001. Formation of thermally stable alkylidene layers on a catalytically active surface. Nature 409, 1023–1026.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gao, Y., Dai, X., Kang, S.-G., Jimenez-Cruz, C.A., Xin, M., Meng, Y., Han, J., Wang, Z., Zhou, R., 2014. Structural and electronic properties of uranium-encapsulated Au₁₄ cage. Sci. Rep. 4, 5862.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mittleman, A.L., 2011. A Short History of Jewish Ethics. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Curran, R., Chou, S.-Y., Trappey, A. (Eds.), 2008. Collaborative Product and Service Life Cycle Management for a Sustainable World: Proceedings of the 15th ISPE International Conference on Concurrent Engineering (CE2008), Advanced Concurrent Engineering. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Chakraborty, A., Konar, A., 2009. Fuzzy Models for Facial Expression-Based Emotion Recognition and Control, in: Konar, A. (Ed.), Emotional Intelligence: A Cybernetic Approach, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 133–173.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Modelling.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Galactic Umbrella’s Tale Revealed [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Aviation Security: Transportation Security Administration May Face Resource and Other Challenges in Developing a System to Screen All Cargo Transported on Passenger Aircraft (No. GAO-08-959T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Green, J.L., 2012. The leadership practices of executive women of local government (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murray, J., 2016. Defying an Unwritten Rule of Escalator Riding. New York Times A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bradley, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Bradley, 2002; Poinar and Danforth, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Poinar and Danforth, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Gao et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Modelling
AbbreviationEcol. Modell.
ISSN (print)0304-3800
ScopeEcological Modelling

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