How to format your references using the Ecological Modelling citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Modelling. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Giomataris, I., 2010. Georges Charpak (1924-2010). Nature 467, 1048.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roth, A., Diederichs, S., 2015. Molecular biology: Rap and chirp about X inactivation. Nature 521, 170–171.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boyle, W.J., Simonet, W.S., Lacey, D.L., 2003. Osteoclast differentiation and activation. Nature 423, 337–342.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Piva, P.G., DiLabio, G.A., Pitters, J.L., Zikovsky, J., Rezeq, M., Dogel, S., Hofer, W.A., Wolkow, R.A., 2005. Field regulation of single-molecule conductivity by a charged surface atom. Nature 435, 658–661.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Aït-Kadi, D., Chouinard, M., Marcotte, S., Riopel, D., 2012. Sustainable Reverse Logistics Network. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Datta, R., Deb, K. (Eds.), 2015. Evolutionary Constrained Optimization, Infosys Science Foundation Series. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Gunderson, E.P., 2014. Epidemiologic Trends and Maternal Risk Factors Predicting Postpartum Weight Retention, in: Nicholson, W., Baptiste-Roberts, K. (Eds.), Obesity During Pregnancy in Clinical Practice. Springer, London, pp. 77–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Modelling.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. You Can Sell Your Poop For $13k Per Year And Help Science [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Maritime Security: Progress and Challenges 10 Years after the Maritime Transportation Security Act (No. GAO-12-1009T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mark, M., 2017. A peer mentorship program for youth transitioning out of foster care: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2010. In Budget Crisis, States Take Aim At Pension Costs. New York Times A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Giomataris, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Giomataris, 2010; Roth and Diederichs, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Roth and Diederichs, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Piva et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Modelling
AbbreviationEcol. Modell.
ISSN (print)0304-3800
ScopeEcological Modelling

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