How to format your references using the Age and Ageing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Age and Ageing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zharkov D. Wise fool left Hussars for career in science admin. Nature 2000; 406: 560.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shen Y, Lua AC. A facile method for the large-scale continuous synthesis of graphene sheets using a novel catalyst. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 3037.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mei T-S, Patel HH, Sigman MS. Enantioselective construction of remote quaternary stereocentres. Nature 2014; 508: 340–344.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mayorga E, Aufdenkampe AK, Masiello CA et al. Young organic matter as a source of carbon dioxide outgassing from Amazonian rivers. Nature 2005; 436: 538–541.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Imbriale WA. Large Antennas of the Deep Space Network. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
An edited book
Avadhanam S, Jyothsna G, Kashyap A, eds. Next Generation DNA Led Technologies. 1st ed. 2016 Singapore: Springer, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Bosco G, Matera F, Ennser K et al. Experiments on Long-Haul High-Capacity Transmission Systems. In: Teixeira A, Tosi Beleffi GM, editors. Optical Transmission: The FP7 BONE Project Experience. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012: 185–234.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Age and Ageing.

Blog post
Hale T. Video Of A Mock Occult Ritual At CERN Circulates Online. IFLScience 2016 (30 October 2018, date last accessed).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airspace Use: Status of Proposals To Expand Special Use Airspace in North Carolina. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schreiber JS. Discursive constructions of decline: Narratives of illness and financial stress among residents in assisted living. 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burch ADS. Facing a Void Left by Hate. New York Times 2017 A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1,2,3,4].

About the journal

Full journal titleAge and Ageing
ISSN (print)0002-0729
ISSN (online)1468-2834

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