How to format your references using the Chemoecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemoecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rothenberg EV (2005) IMMUNOLOGY: Enhanced: Thymic Regulation-Hidden in Plain Sight. Science 307:858–859
A journal article with 2 authors
Bucknall DG, Anderson HL (2003) Chemistry. Polymers get organized. Science 302:1904–1905
A journal article with 3 authors
Ahissar E, Sosnik R, Haidarliu S (2000) Transformation from temporal to rate coding in a somatosensory thalamocortical pathway. Nature 406:302–306
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cubukcu E, Aydin K, Ozbay E, et al (2003) Electromagnetic waves: Negative refraction by photonic crystals. Nature 423:604–605

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Atkin N, Biddiss M, Tallett F (2011) The Wiley-Blackwell Dictionary of Modern European History Since 1789. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK
An edited book
Brar SK, Dhillon GS, Soccol CR (eds) (2014) Biotransformation of Waste Biomass into High Value Biochemicals. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Mitteldorf J (2010) Evolutionary Origins of Aging. In: Fahy GM, West MD, Coles LS, Harris SB (eds) The Future of Aging: Pathways to Human Life Extension. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 87–126

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemoecology.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Fix fractured bones with silk screws. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1985) “Spaces,” “Faces,” and “Bucks”: An Overview of the Role of Automated Information Systems in Managing the Enlisted Force. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Armani MD (2010) Nucleic acid extraction and detection across two-dimensional tissue samples. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bilton N (2013) All Is Fair in Love and Twitter. New York Times MM22

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rothenberg 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Bucknall and Anderson 2003; Rothenberg 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bucknall and Anderson 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Cubukcu et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemoecology
ISSN (print)0937-7409
ISSN (online)1423-0445
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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