How to format your references using the Chemoecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemoecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kamien RD (2011) Applied physics. Knot your simple defect lines? Science 333:46–47
A journal article with 2 authors
Otto SP, Jarne P (2001) Evolution. Haploids--hapless or happening? Science 292:2441–2443
A journal article with 3 authors
Kushiro T, Nambara E, McCourt P (2003) Hormone evolution: The key to signalling. Nature 422:122
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Leach J, Dennis MR, Courtial J, Padgett MJ (2004) Laser beams: knotted threads of darkness. Nature 432:165

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Di Stefano M (2005) Distributed Data Management for Grid Computing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Casas F, Martínez V (eds) (2014) Advances in Differential Equations and Applications. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Toma TSP, de Souza Mendonça M (2014) Population Ecology of Galling Arthropods in the Neotropics. In: Fernandes GW, Santos JC (eds) Neotropical Insect Galls. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 69–98

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemoecology.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) China Wants To Revive The World’s Largest Ever Plane. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) Coordinating and Linking Programs Directed Toward Increasing the Numbers of Minority and Disadvantaged Individuals in the Health Professions. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hogue ML (2012) A Case Study of Perspectives on Building School and Community Partnerships. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman W (2015) Fleeing an Uncertain Future in Venezuela. New York Times A4

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kamien 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Otto and Jarne 2001; Kamien 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Otto and Jarne 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Leach et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemoecology
ISSN (print)0937-7409
ISSN (online)1423-0445
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

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