How to format your references using the Chemoecology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemoecology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lawler A (2000) ASIAN-AMERICAN SCIENTISTS: Lee Case Births a Reluctant Activist. Science 290:1073
A journal article with 2 authors
Brainard MS, Doupe AJ (2002) What songbirds teach us about learning. Nature 417:351–358
A journal article with 3 authors
Riehl S, Zeidi M, Conard NJ (2013) Emergence of agriculture in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran. Science 341:65–67
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Schmitz D, Schmitz-Antoniak C, Warland A, et al (2014) The dipole moment of the spin density as a local indicator for phase transitions. Sci Rep 4:5760

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Connor K, Aardema F, Pélissier M-C (2006) Beyond Reasonable Doubt. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
MacFarland TW (2016) Introduction to Nonparametric Statistics for the Biological Sciences Using R. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Ifeme CV (2016) Diagnosing the Politics of Christian-Muslim Conflicts in the West African Sub-Region: Going beyond the Western Paradigm. In: Lefebure LD (ed) Religion, Authority, and the State: From Constantine to the Contemporary World. Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY, pp 75–99

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemoecology.

Blog post
Andrews R (2016) Violent Volcanic Eruption In Costa Rica Smothers Capital City In Ash. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of Bureau of Prisons’ Year 2000 Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
MacKinder M (2010) Max the Knife, Salesman. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S (2017) These Guys Really Like Trump. New York Times SR6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lawler 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Lawler 2000; Brainard and Doupe 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brainard and Doupe 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Schmitz et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemoecology
ISSN (print)0937-7409
ISSN (online)1423-0445
ScopeEcology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles