How to format your references using the Chemical Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lafferty, K.D., 2010. Microbiology. Interacting parasites. Science 330, 187–188.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cermeño, P., Falkowski, P.G., 2009. Controls on diatom biogeography in the ocean. Science 325, 1539–1541.
A journal article with 3 authors
Beeli, G., Esslen, M., Jäncke, L., 2005. Synaesthesia: when coloured sounds taste sweet. Nature 434, 38.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kaneko, R., Abe, M., Hirabayashi, T., Uchimura, A., Sakimura, K., Yanagawa, Y., Yagi, T., 2014. Expansion of stochastic expression repertoire by tandem duplication in mouse Protocadherin-α cluster. Sci. Rep. 4, 6263.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Summers, N., 2010. Managing Social Service Staff for Excellence. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ameratunga, J., 2016. Correlations of Soil and Rock Properties in Geotechnical Engineering, Developments in Geotechnical Engineering. Springer India, New Delhi.
A chapter in an edited book
Seroyer, S.T., Harner, C.D., 2009. Avoiding and Managing Complications in PCL Reconstruction, in: Meislin, R.J., Halbrecht, J. (Eds.), Complications in Knee and Shoulder Surgery: Management and Treatment Options for the Sports Medicine Orthopedist. Springer, London, pp. 75–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Geology.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2015. Gene Editing Saves The Life Of Baby Girl With Terminal Cancer [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Examination of the Pricing of a Negotiated Fixed-Price Incentive Contract Awarded on a Noncompetitive Basis (No. 103244). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Minger, L., 2017. Examining Education Leadership Communication Practices around Basic and Advanced Skill Sets: A Multiple Case Study (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2016. Bob Krasnow, 82, Executive Who Revived Elektra Records. New York Times A30.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lafferty, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Cermeño and Falkowski, 2009; Lafferty, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cermeño and Falkowski, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Kaneko et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Geology
AbbreviationChem. Geol.
ISSN (print)0009-2541
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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