How to format your references using the Chemical Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marris, E., 2005. India in demand. Nature 433, 902–903.
A journal article with 2 authors
Isalan, M., Morrison, M., 2009. This title is false. Nature 458, 969.
A journal article with 3 authors
Säterberg, T., Sellman, S., Ebenman, B., 2013. High frequency of functional extinctions in ecological networks. Nature 499, 468–470.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
van Dijk, E.L., Chen, C.L., d’Aubenton-Carafa, Y., Gourvennec, S., Kwapisz, M., Roche, V., Bertrand, C., Silvain, M., Legoix-Né, P., Loeillet, S., Nicolas, A., Thermes, C., Morillon, A., 2011. XUTs are a class of Xrn1-sensitive antisense regulatory non-coding RNA in yeast. Nature 475, 114–117.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Segal, H.P., 2012. Utopias. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Washio, T., Luo, J. (Eds.), 2013. Emerging Trends in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining: PAKDD 2012 International Workshops: DMHM, GeoDoc, 3Clust, and DSDM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, May 29 – June 1, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Deuter, A., Koch, H.-J., 2015. Applying Manufacturing Performance Figures to Measure Software Development Excellence, in: Kobyliński, A., Czarnacka-Chrobot, B., Świerczek, J. (Eds.), Software Measurement: 25th International Workshop on Software Measurement and 10th International Conference on Software Process and Product Measurement, IWSM-Mensura 2015, Kraków, Poland, October 5-7, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 62–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Geology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Whales Have Unique Voices [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1969. Administration of Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (No. 092686). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LaPoint, J.L., 2008. The effects of aviation -based error management training on perioperative safety attitudes (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2010. Social Security Loses $50 Million a Year in Benefit Overpayment. New York Times A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marris, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Isalan and Morrison, 2009; Marris, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Isalan and Morrison, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (van Dijk et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Geology
AbbreviationChem. Geol.
ISSN (print)0009-2541
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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