How to format your references using the Chemical Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemical Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brune, H., 2006. Applied physics. Assembly and probing of spin chains of finite size. Science 312, 1005–1006.
A journal article with 2 authors
Salzman, H., Lowell, L., 2008. Making the grade. Nature 453, 28–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chalasani, R., Gupta, A., Vasudevan, S., 2013. Engineering new layered solids from exfoliated inorganics: a periodically alternating hydrotalcite-montmorillonite layered hybrid. Sci. Rep. 3, 3498.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pors, A., Albrektsen, O., Radko, I.P., Bozhevolnyi, S.I., 2013. Gap plasmon-based metasurfaces for total control of reflected light. Sci. Rep. 3, 2155.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bejan, A., 2016. Advanced Engineering Thermodynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Grossweiner, L.I., 2005. The Science of Phototherapy: An Introduction. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Kossack, N.J., Gromoll, J., Reijo Pera, R.A., 2009. Human Embryonic Stem Cells and Germ Cell Development, in: Rajasekhar, V.K., Vemuri, M.C. (Eds.), Regulatory Networks in Stem Cells. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 55–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemical Geology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Simple But Mindblowing Helium Balloon Experiment [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1976. Consolidation of Computer-Output-Microfilm Facilities in Hawaii (No. LCD-76-129). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cappiello, D.M., 2010. Minding the gap: Western export controls and soviet technology policy during the 1960s (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D.A., 2004. 36 Hours | Williamsburg, Va. New York Times F5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brune, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Brune, 2006; Salzman and Lowell, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Salzman and Lowell, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Pors et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemical Geology
AbbreviationChem. Geol.
ISSN (print)0009-2541
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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