How to format your references using the Changing English citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Changing English. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Allen, Philip A. 2008. “From Landscapes into Geological History.” Nature 451 (7176): 274–276.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pilkey, Orrin H., and J. Andrew G. Cooper. 2004. “Climate. Society and Sea Level Rise.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5665): 1781–1782.
A journal article with 3 authors
Misura, K. M., R. H. Scheller, and W. I. Weis. 2000. “Three-Dimensional Structure of the Neuronal-Sec1-Syntaxin 1a Complex.” Nature 404 (6776): 355–362.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gavin, Amanda L., Kasper Hoebe, Bao Duong, Takayuki Ota, Christopher Martin, Bruce Beutler, and David Nemazee. 2006. “Adjuvant-Enhanced Antibody Responses in the Absence of Toll-like Receptor Signaling.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5807): 1936–1938.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gaynor, Gerard H. 2014. Decisions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pancerz, Krzysztof, and Elena Zaitseva, eds. 2015. Computational Intelligence, Medicine and Biology: Selected Links. Vol. 600. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Feng, Xiang, Francis C. M. Lau, and Daqi Gao. 2009. “Cache Allocation in CDN: An Evolutionary Game Generalized Particle Model.” In Complex Sciences: First International Conference, Complex 2009, Shanghai, China, February 23-25, 2009, Revised Papers, Part 2, edited by Jie Zhou, 1226–1237. Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Changing English.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2014. “Single Gene Controls Sleep Cycles.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Aviation Security: Progress Being Made, but Long-Term Attention Is Needed. T-RCED-98-190. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sulaiman, Yohanes. 2008. “The Banteng and the Eagle: Indonesian Foreign Policy and the United States During the Era of Sukarno 1945-1967.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2016. “Broadway’s Savior Meets His Match.” New York Times, September 9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Allen 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Allen 2008; Pilkey and Cooper 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pilkey and Cooper 2004)
  • Three authors: (Misura, Scheller, and Weis 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gavin et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleChanging English
ISSN (print)1358-684X
ISSN (online)1469-3585
Cultural Studies

Other styles