How to format your references using the Changing English citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Changing English. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, Paul. 2004. “The Skills Hunt.” Nature 431 (7004): 109.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meldrum, Deirdre R., and Mark R. Holl. 2002. “Tech.Sight. Microfluidics. Microscale Bioanalytical Systems.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 297 (5584): 1197–1198.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bollasina, Massimo A., Yi Ming, and V. Ramaswamy. 2011. “Anthropogenic Aerosols and the Weakening of the South Asian Summer Monsoon.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6055): 502–505.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Choi, J. Y., D. Muallem, K. Kiselyov, M. G. Lee, P. J. Thomas, and S. Muallem. 2001. “Aberrant CFTR-Dependent HCO3- Transport in Mutations Associated with Cystic Fibrosis.” Nature 410 (6824): 94–97.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allin, Paul, and David J. Hand. 2014. The Wellbeing of Nations. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bramley, Alan, Daniel Brissaud, Daniel Coutellier, and Chris McMahon, eds. 2005. Advances in Integrated Design and Manufacturing in Mechanical Engineering. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kellermann, K. I. 2005. “Grote Reber (1911–2002).” In The New Astronomy: Opening the Electromagnetic Window and Expanding Our View of Planet Earth: A Meeting to Honor Woody Sullivan on His 60th Birthday, edited by Wayne Orchiston, 43–70. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Changing English.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “Girls May Perform Better At School Than Boys – But Their Experience Is Much Less Happy.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: State Department Needs To Make Fundamental Improvements To Its Year 2000 Program. AIMD-98-162. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Felder Derkacs, Amanda Dawn. 2010. “The Role of Desmin in the Signaling Response to Mechanical Stretch of Skeletal Muscle.” Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2007. “As Museum Considers Uses for Land, Gardeners Ponder Their Fate.” New York Times, October 7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik 2004; Meldrum and Holl 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meldrum and Holl 2002)
  • Three authors: (Bollasina, Ming, and Ramaswamy 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Choi et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleChanging English
ISSN (print)1358-684X
ISSN (online)1469-3585
Cultural Studies

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