How to format your references using the Changing English citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Changing English. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wald, Chelsea. 2015. “Neuroscience: The Aesthetic Brain.” Nature 526 (7572): S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Towbin, J. A., and N. E. Bowles. 2002. “The Failing Heart.” Nature 415 (6868): 227–233.
A journal article with 3 authors
Grassly, Nicholas C., Christophe Fraser, and Geoffrey P. Garnett. 2005. “Host Immunity and Synchronized Epidemics of Syphilis across the United States.” Nature 433 (7024): 417–421.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Lim, Hubert H., Minoo Lenarz, Gert Joseph, and Thomas Lenarz. 2013. “Frequency Representation within the Human Brain: Stability versus Plasticity.” Scientific Reports 3: 1474.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1992. Guidelines for Auditing Process Safety Management Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ometto, Jean P., Rostyslav Bun, Matthias Jonas, and Zbigniew Nahorski, eds. 2015. Uncertainties in Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Expanding Our Perspective. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Teichler, Ulrich, Akira Arimoto, and William K. Cummings. 2013. “Research and Teaching: The Changing Views and Activities of the Academic Profession.” In The Changing Academic Profession: Major Findings of a Comparative Survey, edited by Akira Arimoto and William K. Cummings, 117–163. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Changing English.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “No It’s Not Your Imagination, It Actually Is Colder On The Weekend (If You Live In A City).” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. Youth Job Training: Problems Measuring Attainment of Employment Competencies. HRD-87-33. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens, April H. 2012. “William Harold Fletcher (b. 1923): His Life and Career in Music Education at Oklahoma Christian University, 1950–2012.” Doctoral dissertation, Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwirtz, Michael. 2017. “New York City Jails Take Another Blow: Respected Official Is Stepping Down.” New York Times, May 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wald 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Wald 2015; Towbin and Bowles 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Towbin and Bowles 2002)
  • Three authors: (Grassly, Fraser, and Garnett 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lim et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleChanging English
ISSN (print)1358-684X
ISSN (online)1469-3585
Cultural Studies

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