How to format your references using the Changing English citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Changing English. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Markó, I. E. 2001. “Natural Product Synthesis. The Art of Total Synthesis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 294 (5548): 1842–1843.
A journal article with 2 authors
Asimow, P. D., and C. H. Langmuir. 2003. “The Importance of Water to Oceanic Mantle Melting Regimes.” Nature 421 (6925): 815–820.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shikano, Yutaka, Tatsuaki Wada, and Junsei Horikawa. 2014. “Discrete-Time Quantum Walk with Feed-Forward Quantum Coin.” Scientific Reports 4 (March): 4427.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Thomas, G. A., B. I. Shraiman, P. F. Glodis, and M. J. Stephens. 2000. “Towards the Clarity Limit in Optical Fibre.” Nature 404 (6775): 262–264.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barrett-Lennard, Godfrey T. 2014. The Relationship Inventory. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zanuttigh, Pietro. 2016. Time-of-Flight and Structured Light Depth Cameras: Technology and Applications. Edited by Giulio Marin, Carlo Dal Mutto, Fabio Dominio, Ludovico Minto, and Guido Maria Cortelazzo. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Burau, Viola, and Hanne Marlene Dahl. 2013. “Trajectories of Change in Danish Long Term Care Policies—Reproduction by Adaptation through Top-Down and Bottom-Up Reforms.” In Reforms in Long-Term Care Policies in Europe: Investigating Institutional Change and Social Impacts, edited by Costanzo Ranci and Emmanuele Pavolini, 79–95. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Changing English.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “Maternal Deaths Worldwide Have Almost Halved In 25 Years.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2000. Telecommunications: Technological and Regulatory Factors Affecting Consumer Choice of Internet Providers. GAO-01-93. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Watson, Yvonne M. 2019. “Federal Managers’ Use of Evidence (Performance Measurement Data and Evaluation Results): Are We There Yet?” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eder, Steve, and Ben Protess. 2017. “Trump Business Pivots to Budget-Friendly Hotel Line.” New York Times, June 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Markó 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Markó 2001; Asimow and Langmuir 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Asimow and Langmuir 2003)
  • Three authors: (Shikano, Wada, and Horikawa 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Thomas et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleChanging English
ISSN (print)1358-684X
ISSN (online)1469-3585
Cultural Studies

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