How to format your references using the Changing English citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Changing English. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wright, Gerard D. 2007. “Biochemistry. A New Target for Antibiotic Development.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 315 (5817): 1373–1374.
A journal article with 2 authors
Meharg, Andrew A., and Kenneth Killham. 2003. “Environment: A Pre-Industrial Source of Dioxins and Furans.” Nature 421 (6926): 909–910.
A journal article with 3 authors
Titus, Sandra L., James A. Wells, and Lawrence J. Rhoades. 2008. “Repairing Research Integrity.” Nature 453 (7198): 980–982.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gazzani, S., T. Lawrenson, C. Woodward, D. Headon, and R. Sablowski. 2004. “A Link between MRNA Turnover and RNA Interference in Arabidopsis.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 306 (5698): 1046–1048.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cross, Maria, and Barbara MacDonald. 2008. Nutrition in Institutions. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Hazzan, Orit. 2014. Agile Anywhere: Essays on Agile Projects and Beyond. Edited by Yael Dubinsky. SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kirkwood, David H., Michel Suéry, Plato Kapranos, Helen V. Atkinson, and Kenneth P. Young. 2010. “Introduction and Definitions for Rheology and Modeling.” In Semi-Solid Processing of Alloys, edited by Michel Suéry, Plato Kapranos, Helen V. Atkinson, and Kenneth P. Young, 43–44. Springer Series in Materials Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Changing English.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Boulder Leaves Dotted Line Trail On Mars.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1992. Natural Gas: Factors Affecting Approval Times for Construction of Natural Gas Pipelines. RCED-92-100. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Byrd, William E. 2009. “Relational Programming in MiniKanren: Techniques, Applications, and Implementations.” Doctoral dissertation, Bloomington, IN: Indiana University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Caitlin. 1998. “Hyperion Using World’s Largest Mainsail.” New York Times, September 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wright 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Wright 2007; Meharg and Killham 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Meharg and Killham 2003)
  • Three authors: (Titus, Wells, and Rhoades 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gazzani et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleChanging English
ISSN (print)1358-684X
ISSN (online)1469-3585
Cultural Studies

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