How to format your references using the Changing English citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Changing English. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schnitzer, Mark J. 2002. “Biological Computation: Amazing Algorithms.” Nature 416 (6882): 683.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boyd, Philip W., and Douglas Mackie. 2008. “Comment on ‘The Southern Ocean Biological Response to Aeolian Iron Deposition.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5860): 159; author reply 159.
A journal article with 3 authors
Imaizumi, Takato, Steve A. Kay, and Julian I. Schroeder. 2007. “Circadian Rhythms. Daily Watch on Metabolism.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 318 (5857): 1730–1731.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Boland, Michael J., Jennifer L. Hazen, Kristopher L. Nazor, Alberto R. Rodriguez, Wesley Gifford, Greg Martin, Sergey Kupriyanov, and Kristin K. Baldwin. 2009. “Adult Mice Generated from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.” Nature 461 (7260): 91–94.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Karamalidis, Athanasios K., and David A. Dzombak. 2010. Surface Complexation Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Herrero, Álvaro, Václav Snášel, Ajith Abraham, Ivan Zelinka, Bruno Baruque, Héctor Quintián, José Luis Calvo, Javier Sedano, and Emilio Corchado, eds. 2013. International Joint Conference CISIS’12-ICEUTE´12-SOCO´12 Special Sessions. Vol. 189. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Srinivasan, A., and M. Goyal. 2007. “Digital Subtraction Angiography in Carotid Artery Stenosis.” In Imaging of Carotid Artery Stenosis, edited by Bernhard J. Schaller, 41–47. Vienna: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Changing English.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Geckos Are Springs That Stiffen As They Get Bigger.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. Air Traffic Control: Timely Completion of FAA’s Standard Terminal Automation Replacement System Software Is at Risk. AIMD-98-41R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luo, Sean Xiao. 2009. “Theoretical Models of Olfactory Discrimination in Drosophila.” Doctoral dissertation, New York, NY: Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2010. “European Debt Crisis Could Touch A.I.G.” New York Times, May 22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schnitzer 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Schnitzer 2002; Boyd and Mackie 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Boyd and Mackie 2008)
  • Three authors: (Imaizumi, Kay, and Schroeder 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Boland et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleChanging English
ISSN (print)1358-684X
ISSN (online)1469-3585
Cultural Studies

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