How to format your references using the Changing English citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Changing English. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Colman, Steven M. 2002. “Paleoclimate. A Fresh Look at Glacial Floods.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 296 (5571): 1251–1252.
A journal article with 2 authors
Di Franco, Carlo, and Mauro Paternostro. 2013. “A No-Go Result on the Purification of Quantum States.” Scientific Reports 3: 1387.
A journal article with 3 authors
Niemeier, Matthias, J. Douglas Crawford, and Douglas B. Tweed. 2003. “Optimal Transsaccadic Integration Explains Distorted Spatial Perception.” Nature 422 (6927): 76–80.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kunjithapatham, Rani, Swathi Karthikeyan, Jean-Francois Geschwind, Esther Kieserman, Mingde Lin, De-Xue Fu, and Shanmugasundaram Ganapathy-Kanniappan. 2014. “Reversal of Anchorage-Independent Multicellular Spheroid into a Monolayer Mimics a Metastatic Model.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6816.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chinesta, Francisco, Serge Cescotto, Elías Cueto, and Philippe Lorong. 2013. Natural Element Method for the Simulation of Structures and Processes. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Martin, Ralph, Helmut Bez, and Malcolm Sabin, eds. 2005. Mathematics of Surfaces XI: 11th IMA International Conference, Loughborough, UK, September 5-7, 2005. Proceedings. Vol. 3604. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, Jing Yao, and Makoto Ohsaki. 2015. “Force Density Method.” In Tensegrity Structures: Form, Stability, and Symmetry, edited by Makoto Ohsaki, 137–170. Mathematics for Industry. Tokyo: Springer Japan.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Changing English.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2013. “Video Shows Fire Ants Are Capable of Acting like a Liquid and a Solid.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1981. Operation of the Copyright Royalty Tribunal. 115478. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wuite, Jan. 2006. “Spatial and Temporal Dynamics of Three East Antarctic Outlet Glaciers and Their Floating Ice Tongues.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, Sean. 2001. “Still Huffing, Still Puffing.” New York Times, May 20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Colman 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Colman 2002; Di Franco and Paternostro 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Di Franco and Paternostro 2013)
  • Three authors: (Niemeier, Crawford, and Tweed 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kunjithapatham et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleChanging English
ISSN (print)1358-684X
ISSN (online)1469-3585
Cultural Studies

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