How to format your references using the Changing English citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Changing English. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Downie, J. Allan. 2007. “Plant Science. Infectious Heresy.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 316 (5829): 1296–1297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steltzer, Heidi, and Eric Post. 2009. “Ecology. Seasons and Life Cycles.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5929): 886–887.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matsushita, Tomonao, Nobuyoshi Mochizuki, and Akira Nagatani. 2003. “Dimers of the N-Terminal Domain of Phytochrome B Are Functional in the Nucleus.” Nature 424 (6948): 571–574.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Naskar, Deboki, Sunita Nayak, Tuli Dey, and Subhas C. Kundu. 2014. “Non-Mulberry Silk Fibroin Influence Osteogenesis and Osteoblast-Macrophage Cross Talk on Titanium Based Surface.” Scientific Reports 4 (April): 4745.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gupta, K. M., and Nishu Gupta. 2015. Advanced Electrical and Electronics Materials. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Klein, Ulrich. 2015. Galactic and Intergalactic Magnetic Fields. Edited by Andrew Fletcher. Springer Praxis Books. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ben Abdesslem, Fehmi, Luigi Iannone, Marcelo Dias de Amorim, Katia Obraczka, Ignacio Solis, and Serge Fdida. 2007. “A Prototyping Environment for Wireless Multihop Networks.” In Sustainable Internet: Third Asian Internet Engineering Conference, AINTEC 2007, Phuket, Thailand, November 27-29, 2007. Proceedings, edited by Serge Fdida and Kazunori Sugiura, 33–47. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Changing English.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Newly Identified Sperm-Specific Protein Bolsters Prospects Of Male Contraceptive.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Information on Organization and Functions of the Indian Education Resources Center. CED-78-57. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bethany, Michael P. 2014. “Business Continuity Planning: Identifying Gaps, Patterns and Justifications.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, James. 2017. “Roaming the Woods, Imagining Gunfire on a Cold War Base.” New York Times, September 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Downie 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Downie 2007; Steltzer and Post 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Steltzer and Post 2009)
  • Three authors: (Matsushita, Mochizuki, and Nagatani 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Naskar et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleChanging English
ISSN (print)1358-684X
ISSN (online)1469-3585
Cultural Studies

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