How to format your references using the Changing English citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Changing English. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McDowell, Natasha. 2003. “Joint European Plan Will Tackle Africa’s Killer Diseases.” Nature 421 (6918): 5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Iwasaki, Akiko, and Ruslan Medzhitov. 2010. “Regulation of Adaptive Immunity by the Innate Immune System.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 327 (5963): 291–295.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rabinovich, Misha, Ramon Huerta, and Gilles Laurent. 2008. “Neuroscience. Transient Dynamics for Neural Processing.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5885): 48–50.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Déjardin, Jérôme, Aurélien Rappailles, Olivier Cuvier, Charlotte Grimaud, Martine Decoville, Daniel Locker, and Giacomo Cavalli. 2005. “Recruitment of Drosophila Polycomb Group Proteins to Chromatin by DSP1.” Nature 434 (7032): 533–538.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Evans, Anthony J. 2014. Markets for Managers. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Böhme, Rainer, Michael Brenner, Tyler Moore, and Matthew Smith, eds. 2014. Financial Cryptography and Data Security: FC 2014 Workshops, BITCOIN and WAHC 2014, Christ Church, Barbados, March 7, 2014, Revised Selected Papers. Vol. 8438. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pekow, Joel, and Russell D. Cohen. 2015. “Medical Therapy: The Future.” In Crohn’s Disease: Basic Principles, edited by Alessandro Fichera and Mukta K. Krane, 49–63. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Changing English.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2017. “An Astronaut’s View Of Mount Etna’s Recent Volcanic Eruption.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Space Station: NASA’s Search for Design, Cost, and Schedule Stability Continues. NSIAD-91-125. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Steigner, Tanja. 2008. “A Study of Cross -Border Takeovers: Examining the Impact of National Culture on Internalization Benefits, and the Implications of Early versus Late -Mover Status for Bidders and Their Rivals.” Doctoral dissertation, Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Paulson, Michael. 2017. “Tight Tony Battles and Sure Bets.” New York Times, June 8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (McDowell 2003).
This sentence cites two references (McDowell 2003; Iwasaki and Medzhitov 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Iwasaki and Medzhitov 2010)
  • Three authors: (Rabinovich, Huerta, and Laurent 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Déjardin et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleChanging English
ISSN (print)1358-684X
ISSN (online)1469-3585
Cultural Studies

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