How to format your references using the European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wang Q. China’s citizens must act to save their environment. Nature 2013;497:159.
A journal article with 2 authors
Etienne RS, Rosindell J. Comment on ‘Global correlations in tropical tree species richness and abundance reject neutrality’. Science 2012;336:1639; author reply 1639.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaul M, Garden GA, Lipton SA. Pathways to neuronal injury and apoptosis in HIV-associated dementia. Nature 2001;410:988–994.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
Arita K, Ariyoshi M, Tochio H, Nakamura Y, Shirakawa M. Recognition of hemi-methylated DNA by the SRA protein UHRF1 by a base-flipping mechanism. Nature 2008;455:818–821.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hunter DA. A Practical Guide to Critical Thinking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Lamprecht A-L, Margaria T, eds. Process Design for Natural Scientists: An Agile Model-Driven Approach. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Camargo DQ de, Bodmann BEJ, Vilhena MT, Leite S d. QB. A Novel Method for Simulating Spectral Nuclear Reactor Criticality by a Spatially Dependent Volume Size Control. In: Constanda C, Harris PJ, eds. Integral Methods in Science and Engineering: Computational and Analytic Aspects Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2011. p. 35–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging.

Blog post
Andrew E. This Technique Could Lead To Self-Healing Tires. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. (30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. CROSSTALK and Mirror: What’s New Under the CROSSTALK Standard--Part 1. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Mar. Report No.: 140678.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ho T. The influence of physical activity and unsafe neighborhoods on the development of gestational diabetes among women in California [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis G. Opera of the Soul, Sparsely Staged. New York Times 2012;0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging
AbbreviationEur. J. Echocardiogr.
ISSN (print)1525-2167
ISSN (online)1532-2114
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles