How to format your references using the European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pockley P. Tax blow leaves Australian science reeling. Nature 2000;405:387.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sorensen EJ, Sammis GM. Chemistry. A dash of proline makes things sweet. Science 2004;305:1725–1726.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bonsall MB, Jansen VAA, Hassell MP. Life history trade-offs assemble ecological guilds. Science 2004;306:111–114.
A journal article with 31 or more authors
Beek JD van, Beaulieu L, Schäfer H, Demura M, Asakura T, Meier BH. Solid-state NMR determination of the secondary structure of Samia cynthia ricini silk. Nature 2000;405:1077–1079.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Krichen S, Chaouachi J. Graph-Related Optimization and Decision Support Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
André FJ. Designing Public Policies: An Approach Based on Multi-Criteria Analysis and Computable General Equilibrium Modeling. Cardenete MA, Romero C, eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Tan M, Tan M. Developing Disciplinary Intuitions in the Natural Sciences. In: Lim KYT, ed. Disciplinary Intuitions and the Design of Learning Environments Singapore: Springer; 2015. p. 55–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging.

Blog post
Andrew E. Do Kids Born By C-section Have A Higher Risk Of Chronic Disease? A New Study Looks At The Evidence. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015. (30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Aviation Administration: Challenges Facing the Agency in Fiscal Year 2008 and Beyond. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Feb. Report No.: GAO-07-490T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Leal LS. Pair correlations in clean magnetic Josephson junctions [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sorkin AR, MERCED MJ de la, Thomas K. As Amazon Looms, CVS Eyes Aetna For Big Buy. New York Times 2017;B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleEuropean Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging
AbbreviationEur. J. Echocardiogr.
ISSN (print)1525-2167
ISSN (online)1532-2114
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles