How to format your references using the Ceramics International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ceramics International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. van de Walle, Melting Mechanisms. Simulations provide a rare look at real melting, Science. 346 (2014) 704–705.
A journal article with 2 authors
J.D. Bowman, A.E.E. Rogers, A lower limit of Δz > 0.06 for the duration of the reionization epoch, Nature. 468 (2010) 796–798.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Mitchell, P. Wei, W.A. Lim, Oscillatory stress stimulation uncovers an Achilles’ heel of the yeast MAPK signaling network, Science. 350 (2015) 1379–1383.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F.-F. Wu, K.C. Chan, S.-S. Jiang, S.-H. Chen, G. Wang, Bulk metallic glass composite with good tensile ductility, high strength and large elastic strain limit, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5302.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.T. Wells, Corporate Fraud Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2017.
An edited book
J. Kandampully, ed., Service Management: The New Paradigm in Retailing, Springer, New York, NY, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
M.K.-T. Choi, K.-B. Chan, Invitation to the QQ World, in: K.-B. Chan (Ed.), Online Dating as A Strategic Game: Why and How Men in Hong Kong Use QQ to Chase Women in Mainland China, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 77–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ceramics International.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Scientists have created a blueprint for a prosthetic hand with a sense of touch, IFLScience. (2013). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Security: TSA’s Staffing Allocation Model Is Useful for Allocating Staff among Airports, but Its Assumptions Should Be Systematically Reassessed, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
T.M. Forshey, Neural basis of the neurological diagnostic power of vibrotactile sensory testing, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Mazzetti, A. Goldman, M.S. Schmidt, M. Apuzzo, Killing C.I.A. Informants, China Stifled U.S. Spying, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCeramics International
AbbreviationCeram. Int.
ISSN (print)0272-8842
ScopeProcess Chemistry and Technology
Ceramics and Composites
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Other styles