How to format your references using the Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nedergaard M. Neuroscience. Garbage truck of the brain. Science. 2013;340(6140):1529-1530.
A journal article with 2 authors
Klausberger T, Somogyi P. Neuronal diversity and temporal dynamics: the unity of hippocampal circuit operations. Science. 2008;321(5885):53-57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mustard JF, Cooper CD, Rifkin MK. Evidence for recent climate change on Mars from the identification of youthful near-surface ground ice. Nature. 2001;412(6845):411-414.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chibotaru LF, Ceulemans A, Bruyndoncx V, Moshchalkov VV. Symmetry-induced formation of antivortices in mesoscopic superconductors. Nature. 2000;408(6814):833-835.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Banks D. An Introduction to Thermogeology: Ground Source Heating and Cooling. Wiley-Blackwell; 2012.
An edited book
Mitchell-Walthour GL, Hordge-Freeman E, eds. Race and the Politics of Knowledge Production: Diaspora and Black Transnational Scholarship in the United States and Brazil. Palgrave Macmillan US; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith MK, French JL, Kowalski KG, Hutmacher MM, Ewy W. Decision-Making in Drug Development: Application of a Model Based Framework for Assessing Trial Performance. In: Kimko HHC, Peck CC, eds. Clinical Trial Simulations: Applications and Trends. AAPS Advances in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Series. Springer; 2011:61-83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Cockroach Cyborgs Could Help Rescue Crews After Disasters. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Business Modernization: Some Progress Made toward Implementing GAO Recommendations Related to NASA’s Integrated Financial Management Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zaarour M. Enhancing the foster care experience of children with autism: A grant proposal. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Worst Call Ever? Sure. Kill the Umpires? Never. New York Times. June 4, 2010:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
AbbreviationCell. Mol. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)2352-345X

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