How to format your references using the Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rankin CH. Neuroscience. A bite to remember. Science. 2002;296(5573):1624-1625.
A journal article with 2 authors
Waterhouse PM, Hellens RP. Plant biology: Coding in non-coding RNAs. Nature. 2015;520(7545):41-42.
A journal article with 3 authors
Behie SW, Zelisko PM, Bidochka MJ. Endophytic insect-parasitic fungi translocate nitrogen directly from insects to plants. Science. 2012;336(6088):1576-1577.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mastepanov M, Sigsgaard C, Dlugokencky EJ, et al. Large tundra methane burst during onset of freezing. Nature. 2008;456(7222):628-630.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barbaroux P, Attour A, Schenk E. Knowledge Management and Innovation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Baets W, ed. Knowledge Management and Management Learning: Extending the Horizons of Knowledge-Based Management. Vol 9. Springer US; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Chomicki J. Iterative Modification and Incremental Evaluation of Preference Queries. In: Dix J, Hegner SJ, eds. Foundations of Information and Knowledge Systems: 4th International Symposium, FoIKS 2006, Budapest, Hungary, Februrary 14-17, 2006. Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2006:63-82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Polar Bears Face Starvation And Cub Loss Due To Sea Ice Loss. IFLScience. Published November 27, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. University Research: Most Federal Agencies Need to Better Protect against Financial Conflicts of Interest. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Malkus N. Beneath the District Averages: Intradistrict Differences in Teacher Compensation Expenditures. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eddy M, Kishkovsky S. Bolshoi Director Is Upbeat About His Recovery. New York Times. March 16, 2013:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
AbbreviationCell. Mol. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
ISSN (print)2352-345X

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