How to format your references using the Paleoceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paleoceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
ten Kate, K. (2002). Global genetic resources. Science and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 295(5564), 2371–2372.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carter, N. J., & Cross, R. A. (2005). Mechanics of the kinesin step. Nature, 435(7040), 308–312.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nosil, P., Crespi, B. J., & Sandoval, C. P. (2002). Host-plant adaptation drives the parallel evolution of reproductive isolation. Nature, 417(6887), 440–443.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wang, H.-L., Yang, J., Boykin, L. M., Zhao, Q.-Y., Wang, Y.-J., Liu, S.-S., & Wang, X.-W. (2014). Developing conversed microsatellite markers and their implications in evolutionary analysis of the Bemisia tabaci complex. Scientific Reports, 4, 6351.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Alhabeeb, M. J. (2012). Mathematical Finance. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Archer, M. S. (Ed.). (2013). Social Morphogenesis. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Martinez, M.-J., & Hinde, J. P. (2014). Random Effects Ordinal Time Models for Grouped Toxicological Data from a Biological Control Assay. In G. MacKenzie & D. Peng (Eds.), Statistical Modelling in Biostatistics and Bioinformatics: Selected Papers (pp. 45–58). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paleoceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 24). FBI Admits Using Flawed Scientific Evidence In Trials. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Traffic Safety Programs: Progress, States’ Challenges, and Issues for Reauthorization (No. GAO-08-990T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lansdon, J. (2010). A policy analysis of California’s three strikes law of 1994 (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wilson, M. (2017, October 27). A Hole in Their Hearts, 5 Years After Hurricane Hit Staten Island. New York Times, p. A15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (ten Kate, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Carter & Cross, 2005; ten Kate, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Carter & Cross, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaleoceanography
ISSN (print)0883-8305
ISSN (online)1944-9186

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