How to format your references using the Paleoceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paleoceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Norrby, S. R. (2004). Alert to a European epidemic. Nature, 431(7008), 507–508.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shapira, P., & Wang, J. (2010). Follow the money. Nature, 468(7324), 627–628.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hillebrandt, H., Friston, K. J., & Blakemore, S.-J. (2014). Effective connectivity during animacy perception--dynamic causal modelling of Human Connectome Project data. Scientific Reports, 4, 6240.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rink, J. C., Gurley, K. A., Elliott, S. A., & Sánchez Alvarado, A. (2009). Planarian Hh signaling regulates regeneration polarity and links Hh pathway evolution to cilia. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5958), 1406–1410.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chevallier, J., & Ielpo, F. (2013). The Economics of Commodity Markets. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Dogra, V. S., & MacLennan, G. T. (Eds.). (2013). Genitourinary Radiology: Kidney, Bladder and Urethra: The Pathologic Basis. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Liu, X.-J., & Wang, J. (2014). Velocity and Jacobian Analysis of Parallel Mechanisms. In J. Wang (Ed.), Parallel Kinematics: Type, Kinematics, and Optimal Design (pp. 121–128). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paleoceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, D. (2017, January 5). The Myth Of Romantic Love May Be Ruining Your Health. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2015). Positive Train Control: Additional Oversight Needed As Most Railroads Do Not Expect to Meet 2015 Implementation Deadline (No. GAO-15-739). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzalez, E. R. (2015). Technology and adiposity: Effects of television time, video or computer game time, and computer use on body fat among Latino youth (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001, August 5). Challenging Coffee in Manhattan, and Taking a Lump or 2. New York Times, p. 145.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Norrby, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Norrby, 2004; Shapira & Wang, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shapira & Wang, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Rink et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaleoceanography
ISSN (print)0883-8305
ISSN (online)1944-9186

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