How to format your references using the Paleoceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paleoceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sheppard, C. R. C. (2003). Predicted recurrences of mass coral mortality in the Indian Ocean. Nature, 425(6955), 294–297.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gomberg, J., & Johnson, P. (2005). Seismology: dynamic triggering of earthquakes. Nature, 437(7060), 830.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nimmerjahn, A., Kirchhoff, F., & Helmchen, F. (2005). Resting microglial cells are highly dynamic surveillants of brain parenchyma in vivo. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5726), 1314–1318.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Willhoft, O., Ghoneim, M., Lin, C.-L., Chua, E. Y. D., Wilkinson, M., Chaban, Y., et al. (2018). Structure and dynamics of the yeast SWR1-nucleosome complex. Science (New York, N.Y.), 362(6411).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller, M. B. (2013). Mathematics and Statistics for Financial Risk Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Deodhar, A. (2011). Fibromyalgia: A Practical Clinical Guide. (D. A. Marcus, Ed.). New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang, J., Ma, H., & Wang, X. (2013). Green Growth of the Secondary Industry. In X. Li & J. Pan (Eds.), China Green Development Index Report 2011 (pp. 79–103). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paleoceanography.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, August 15). What Does Your Skin Look Like Under UV Light? Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2011). Small Business Innovation Research: SBA Should Work with Agencies to Improve the Data Available for Program Evaluation (No. GAO-11-698). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sidwell, M. D. (2017). Indirect measures as predictors of social skills observed through means of direct observation (Doctoral dissertation). Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J. (2017, April 17). Climate Change Reroutes a Yukon River in a Geological Instant, Scientists Say. New York Times, p. A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sheppard, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Gomberg & Johnson, 2005; Sheppard, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gomberg & Johnson, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Willhoft et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaleoceanography
ISSN (print)0883-8305
ISSN (online)1944-9186

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