How to format your references using the Paleoceanography citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Paleoceanography. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marder, E. (2001). Moving rhythms. Nature, 410(6830), 755.
A journal article with 2 authors
Evans, J. W., & Thiel, P. A. (2010). Chemistry. A little chemistry helps the big get bigger. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6004), 599–600.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wood, B. J., Walter, M. J., & Wade, J. (2006). Accretion of the Earth and segregation of its core. Nature, 441(7095), 825–833.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Das, S. B., Joughin, I., Behn, M. D., Howat, I. M., King, M. A., Lizarralde, D., & Bhatia, M. P. (2008). Fracture propagation to the base of the Greenland Ice Sheet during supraglacial lake drainage. Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5877), 778–781.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Srivastava, S. P. (2014). Developments in Lubricant Technology. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Shumaker, R. (Ed.). (2007). Virtual Reality: Second International Conference, ICVR 2007, Held as part of HCI International 2007, Beijing, China, July 22-27, 2007. Proceedings (Vol. 4563). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Roberts, A. R., & Yeager, K. R. (2012). Indicatori della predisposizione alla crisi da parte di una persona. In K. R. Yeager (Ed.), Gli interventi sulla crisi: Una guida pratica (pp. 11–11). Milano: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Paleoceanography.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, February 20). This Hair Dye Changes Color Depending On The Temperature Around You. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Technology Transfers: Benefits of Cooperative R&D Agreements (No. RCED-95-52). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baumgarten, D. K. (2013). An Examination of the Relationship between Collegiate Student-Athlete’s Leadership Role in the Athletic Setting and Their Academic Success (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Swanson, A. (2017, October 20). Internal Discord Hinders Trump’s Trade Agenda. New York Times, p. A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Marder, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Evans & Thiel, 2010; Marder, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Evans & Thiel, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Das et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePaleoceanography
ISSN (print)0883-8305
ISSN (online)1944-9186

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