How to format your references using the FEMS Microbiology Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for FEMS Microbiology Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lenski RE. Genetics and evolution. Come fly, and leave the baggage behind. Science 2001;294:533–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Freckleton RP, Sutherland WJ. Hospital waiting-lists. Do power laws imply self-regulation? Nature 2001;413:382.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rossi DJ, Oshima T, Attwell D. Glutamate release in severe brain ischaemia is mainly by reversed uptake. Nature 2000;403:316–21.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gallarda BW, Bonanomi D, Müller D et al. Segregation of axial motor and sensory pathways via heterotypic trans-axonal signaling. Science 2008;320:233–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paladino B. Corporate Performance Management Best Practices. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2013.
An edited book
Noordeloos ME. The Entolomataceae of Tasmania. Gates GM (ed.). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Shaikh T, Dasgupta R. Urinary Tract Infection in Diabetic Patients. In: Rané A, Dasgupta R (eds.). Urinary Tract Infection: Clinical Perspectives on Urinary Tract Infection. London: Springer, 2013, 45–51.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for FEMS Microbiology Reviews.

Blog post
Andrew D. Meet The Animals Who Live INSIDE Volcanoes. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Operations: NASA’s Communications Support for Earth Orbiting Spacecraft. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Allard IN. Examining the relationship between organizational culture and performance: Moderators of culture gap. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. January 6, 2017:MM20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lenski 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Freckleton and Sutherland 2001; Lenski 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Freckleton and Sutherland 2001)
  • Three authors: (Rossi, Oshima and Attwell 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gallarda et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleFEMS Microbiology Reviews
AbbreviationFEMS Microbiol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0168-6445
ISSN (online)1574-6976
Infectious Diseases

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