How to format your references using the FEMS Microbiology Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for FEMS Microbiology Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier Q. Sea of dreams. Nature 2008;456:540–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ashlin A, Ladle RJ. Science communication. Environmental science adrift in the blogosphere. Science 2006;312:201.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wender PA, Kee J-M, Warrington JM. Practical synthesis of prostratin, DPP, and their analogs, adjuvant leads against latent HIV. Science 2008;320:649–52.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mota LJ, Journet L, Sorg I et al. Bacterial injectisomes: needle length does matter. Science 2005;307:1278.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wood T, Anderson M, Analytics F. The Commercial Real Estate Tsunami. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2010.
An edited book
Pont J-C ed. Collected Works of Charles François Sturm. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Karasulu B, Korukoglu S. A Case Study: People Detection and Tracking in Videos. In: Korukoglu S (ed.). Performance Evaluation Software: Moving Object Detection and Tracking in Videos. New York, NY: Springer, 2013, 51–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for FEMS Microbiology Reviews.

Blog post
Davis J. Pig-Like “Bacon Turtle” Swam The Ancient Waterways Of Utah. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Mass Transit: Status of New Starts Program and Potential for Bus Rapid Transit Projects. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alsaadi A. Smart smoke and fire detection with wireless and global system for mobile technology. 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW. As Puerto Rico Defaults, Eyes Turn to Washington. New York Times. May 3, 2016:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Ashlin and Ladle 2006; Schiermeier 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ashlin and Ladle 2006)
  • Three authors: (Wender, Kee and Warrington 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Mota et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleFEMS Microbiology Reviews
AbbreviationFEMS Microbiol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0168-6445
ISSN (online)1574-6976
Infectious Diseases

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