How to format your references using the FEMS Microbiology Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for FEMS Microbiology Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Olivier NB. Structural biology: Ribosome revelations. Nature 2014;513:491–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Efferson C, Vogt S. Viewing men’s faces does not lead to accurate predictions of trustworthiness. Sci Rep 2013;3:1047.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kingon AI, Maria JP, Streiffer SK. Alternative dielectrics to silicon dioxide for memory and logic devices. Nature 2000;406:1032–8.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ghosh D, Griswold J, Erman M et al. Structural basis for androgen specificity and oestrogen synthesis in human aromatase. Nature 2009;457:219–23.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Godwin W. International Construction Contracts. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013.
An edited book
Grant SFA ed. The Genetics of Obesity. New York, NY: Springer, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Brunner D, Voigt T. Innovation Processes in Cooperative Organizations: Results of a Case Study Research. In: Hendrikse G, Tuunanen M, Windsperger J, et al. (eds.). Strategy and Governance of Networks: Cooperatives, Franchising, and Strategic Alliances. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD, 2008, 47–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for FEMS Microbiology Reviews.

Blog post
Andrew E. Adidas Create a Shoe Made Almost Entirely From Ocean Garbage. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Airport Safety Inspection Program Needed To Improve Flight Safety of Civil Aircraft. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dotson KT. Smoke points of microgravity and normal gravity coflow diffusion flames. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Five Years Later, A Different Outcome. New York Times. October 5, 2011:B14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Olivier 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Efferson and Vogt 2013; Olivier 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Efferson and Vogt 2013)
  • Three authors: (Kingon, Maria and Streiffer 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ghosh et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFEMS Microbiology Reviews
AbbreviationFEMS Microbiol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0168-6445
ISSN (online)1574-6976
Infectious Diseases

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