How to format your references using the FEMS Microbiology Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for FEMS Microbiology Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hunt G. Paleontology. Variation and early evolution. Science 2007;317:459–60.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hedges SB, Kumar S. Genomics. Vertebrate genomes compared. Science 2002;297:1283–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Marshall CH, Pielke RA Sr, Steyaert LT. Wetlands: crop freezes and land-use change in Florida. Nature 2003;426:29–30.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Eggert D, Naumann M, Reimer R et al. Nanoscale glucan polymer network causes pathogen resistance. Sci Rep 2014;4:4159.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Russell C. Trustee Investment Strategy for Endowments and Foundations. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2006.
An edited book
Kremer F ed. Dynamics in Geometrical Confinement. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Kumar S, Managi S. Total Factor Productivity of Indian Industry. In: Kumar S (ed.). The Economics of Sustainable Development: The Case of India. New York, NY: Springer US, 2009, 85–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for FEMS Microbiology Reviews.

Blog post
Andrew E. Failure In Real Science Is Good – And Different From Phony Controversies. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Benefits Realized for Selected Health Care Functions. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Duberstein JN. The shape of the commons: Social networks and the conservation of small-scale fisheries in the northern Gulf of California, Mexico. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Novick SM. Reaching Across the Menu Divide. New York Times. November 8, 2015:LI8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hunt 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Hedges and Kumar 2002; Hunt 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hedges and Kumar 2002)
  • Three authors: (Marshall, Pielke and Steyaert 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Eggert et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFEMS Microbiology Reviews
AbbreviationFEMS Microbiol. Rev.
ISSN (print)0168-6445
ISSN (online)1574-6976
Infectious Diseases

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