How to format your references using the Case Studies in Thermal Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Thermal Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Butler, Obituary: Hubert Curien (1924-2005), Nature. 434 (2005) 453.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.S. Brown, J.L. Goldstein, Biomedicine. Lowering LDL--not only how low, but how long?, Science. 311 (2006) 1721–1723.
A journal article with 3 authors
A.F. Koenderink, A. Alù, A. Polman, Nanophotonics: shrinking light-based technology, Science. 348 (2015) 516–521.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G.J. Taylor, T. Luu, D. Ball, M.V. Srinivasan, Vision and air flow combine to streamline flying honeybees, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2614.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Minns, I. Elliott, FSM-Based Digital Design Using Verilog HDL, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2008.
An edited book
R. Maclean, D.N. Wilson, J. Lauglo, eds., Vocationalisation of Secondary Education Revisited, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
D. Looney, P. Kidmose, D.P. Mandic, Ear-EEG: User-Centered and Wearable BCI, in: C. Guger, B. Allison, E.C. Leuthardt (Eds.), Brain-Computer Interface Research: A State-of-the-Art Summary -2, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014: pp. 41–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Thermal Engineering.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, Humpback Whale Breaches Practically On Top Of Kayakers, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federally Funded R&D Centers: Observations on DOD Actions To Improve Management, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.N. Shendge, Improvement in Estimation of Carrier Frequency Offset in Wireless Networks, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Kenigsberg, Review: ‘Videofilia (and Other Viral Syndromes)’ Is a Digital Hall of Mirrors, New York Times. (2016) C11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Thermal Engineering
AbbreviationCase Stud. Therm. Eng.
ISSN (print)2214-157X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Engineering (miscellaneous)

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