How to format your references using the Case Studies in Thermal Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Case Studies in Thermal Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P.L. Gould, Physics. Cold molecules beat the shakes, Science. 322 (2008) 203–204.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.I. Podgornaia, M.T. Laub, Protein evolution. Pervasive degeneracy and epistasis in a protein-protein interface, Science. 347 (2015) 673–677.
A journal article with 3 authors
D. Lu, M.A. Searles, A. Klug, Crystal structure of a zinc-finger-RNA complex reveals two modes of molecular recognition, Nature. 426 (2003) 96–100.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Mainprice, A. Tommasi, H. Couvy, P. Cordier, D.J. Frost, Pressure sensitivity of olivine slip systems and seismic anisotropy of Earth’s upper mantle, Nature. 433 (2005) 731–733.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
F. Gaffikin, M. Morrissey, Planning in Divided Cities: Collaborative Shaping of Contested Space, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
C. Priami, R.-J. Back, I. Petre, E. de Vink, eds., Transactions on Computational Systems Biology XIII, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
E. González-Jiménez, G.E. Mullin, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome: Etiopathogenic Analysis, in: G.E. Mullin, L.J. Cheskin, L.E. Matarese (Eds.), Integrative Weight Management: A Guide for Clinicians, Springer, New York, NY, 2014: pp. 47–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Case Studies in Thermal Engineering.

Blog post
J. Davis, Shared Culture May Be Altering DNA, With Implications For Health, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, National Airspace System: Observations on the Wide Area Augmentation System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R. Krishnan, Generalized Conditional Matching Algorithm for Ordered and Unordered Sets, Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pilon, I.O.C. Rejects ’72 Remembrance, New York Times. (2012) B10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCase Studies in Thermal Engineering
AbbreviationCase Stud. Therm. Eng.
ISSN (print)2214-157X
ScopeFluid Flow and Transfer Processes
Engineering (miscellaneous)

Other styles