How to format your references using the The Crop Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Crop Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
G.-J. Kroes, Frontiers in surface scattering simulations, Science. 321 (2008) 794–797.
A journal article with 2 authors
J. Wei, L. Tong, Crystal structure of the 500-kDa yeast acetyl-CoA carboxylase holoenzyme dimer, Nature. 526 (2015) 723–727.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.T. Hren, M.M. Tice, C.P. Chamberlain, Oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence for a temperate climate 3.42 billion years ago, Nature. 462 (2009) 205–208.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G. Reithmaier, S. Lichtmannecker, T. Reichert, P. Hasch, K. Müller, M. Bichler, R. Gross, J.J. Finley, On-chip time resolved detection of quantum dot emission using integrated superconducting single photon detectors, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1901.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T. Sato, D.M. Kammen, B. Duan, M. Macuha, Z. Zhou, J. Wu, M. Tariq, S.A. Asfaw, Smart Grid Standards, John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore, 2015.
An edited book
R. Jain, S. Jain, F. Stephan, eds., Theory and Applications of Models of Computation: 12th Annual Conference, TAMC 2015, Singapore, May 18-20, 2015, Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Shapiro, Foundations: Structures, Sets, and Categories, in: G. Sommaruga (Ed.), Foundational Theories of Classical and Constructive Mathematics, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2011: pp. 97–110.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Crop Journal.

Blog post
S. Luntz, How Worms Changed The Course Of Life On Earth, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Broadband Performance: Additional Actions Could Help FCC Evaluate Its Efforts to Inform Consumers, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.A. Piekielek, Public wildlands at the U.S.-Mexico border: Where conservation, migration, and border enforcement collide, Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.K. Schilling, The Look of ’70s SoHo — Captured in One Apartment, New York Times. (2017) M2240.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Crop Journal
AbbreviationCrop J.
ISSN (print)2214-5141
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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