How to format your references using the The Crop Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Crop Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.A. Yayanos, Are cells viable at gigapascal pressures?, Science. 297 (2002) 295.
A journal article with 2 authors
V.W.C. Soo, T.K. Wood, Antitoxin MqsA represses curli formation through the master biofilm regulator CsgD, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 3186.
A journal article with 3 authors
T. Sato, H. Atomi, T. Imanaka, Archaeal type III RuBisCOs function in a pathway for AMP metabolism, Science. 315 (2007) 1003–1006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
F. Niu, P.G. Silver, R.M. Nadeau, T.V. McEvilly, Migration of seismic scatterers associated with the 1993 Parkfield aseismic transient event, Nature. 426 (2003) 544–548.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R. Gonzalez, F. Qi, B. Huang, Process Control System Fault Diagnosis: A Bayesian Approach, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
F. Chiappelli, ed., Evidence-Based Practice: Toward Optimizing Clinical Outcomes, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
R.G. Miltenberger, S.E. Bloom, S. Sanchez, D.A. Valbuena, Functional Assessment, in: N.N. Singh (Ed.), Handbook of Evidence-Based Practices in Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 69–97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Crop Journal.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Giant Impacts, Planet Formation And The Search For Life Elsewhere, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, NASA-Ames Research Center Should Not Have Awarded Computational Services Contract to SBA and Technology Development of California, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.W. Wurster, Management matter? Effects of charcoal production management on woodland regeneration in Senegal, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
STEVEN LEE MYERS; C.J. Chivers contributed reporting from Beslan for this article, S.K.F. Melikhovo, PUTIN SAYS RUSSIA FACES FULL “WAR” TO DIVIDE NATION, New York Times. (2004) 11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Crop Journal
AbbreviationCrop J.
ISSN (print)2214-5141
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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