How to format your references using the The Crop Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for The Crop Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. Pleasants, Epidemiology: a moving target, Nature. 515 (2014) S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
H.-J. Park, K. Friston, Structural and functional brain networks: from connections to cognition, Science. 342 (2013) 1238411.
A journal article with 3 authors
S.N. Raymond, A.M. Mandell, S. Sigurdsson, Exotic Earths: forming habitable worlds with giant planet migration, Science. 313 (2006) 1413–1416.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.-B. Zhang, Z.-C. Cai, T.-B. Zhu, W.-Y. Yang, C. Müller, Mechanisms for the retention of inorganic N in acidic forest soils of southern China, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2342.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E. Ehrlich, D. Fanelli, The Financial Services Marketing Handbook, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2012.
An edited book
J. Stillwell, P. Norman, C. Thomas, P. Surridge, eds., Spatial and Social Disparities: Understanding Population Trends and Processes: volume 2, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
R. Banks, V. Khomenko, L.J. Steggles, Modeling Genetic Regulatory Networks, in: I. Koch, W. Reisig, F. Schreiber (Eds.), Modeling in Systems Biology: The Petri Net Approach, Springer, London, 2011: pp. 73–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for The Crop Journal.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Yellowstone Earthquakes Reveal A Volcanic System Six Times Bigger Than We Thought, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, District of Columbia Charter Schools: Multi-Agency Plan Needed to Continue Progress Addressing High and Disproportionate Discipline Rates, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.Y. Theis, Accessing mental health services among Asian American adults: Evidence from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G.A. Hirsch, 60 Years Ago, An Olympic Trifecta Of Endurance, New York Times. (2012) SP11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleThe Crop Journal
AbbreviationCrop J.
ISSN (print)2214-5141
ScopeAgronomy and Crop Science
Plant Science

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