How to format your references using the Cartography and Geographic Information Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cartography and Geographic Information Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crane, Brian R. 2012. “Biochemistry. Nature’s Intricate Clockwork.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 337 (6091): 165–166.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu, Zhonghua, and Tsan Sam Xiao. 2015. “STRUCTURAL BIOLOGY. Assembling the Wheel of Death.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6259): 376–377.
A journal article with 3 authors
Echtay, K. S., E. Winkler, and M. Klingenberg. 2000. “Coenzyme Q Is an Obligatory Cofactor for Uncoupling Protein Function.” Nature 408 (6812): 609–613.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dorrello, N. Valerio, Angelo Peschiaroli, Daniele Guardavaccaro, Nancy H. Colburn, Nicholas E. Sherman, and Michele Pagano. 2006. “S6K1- and BetaTRCP-Mediated Degradation of PDCD4 Promotes Protein Translation and Cell Growth.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 314 (5798): 467–471.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Young, Susan, and Jade Smith. 2017. Helping Children with ADHD. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Bland, Kirby I., Markus W. Büchler, Attila Csendes, Michael G. Sarr, O. James Garden, and John Wong, eds. 2009. General Surgery. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Boulesteix, Anne-Laure. 2016. “Which Resampling-Based Error Estimator for Benchmark Studies? A Power Analysis with Application to PLS-LDA.” In The Multiple Facets of Partial Least Squares and Related Methods: PLS, Paris, France, 2014, edited by Hervé Abdi, Vincenzo Esposito Vinzi, Giorgio Russolillo, Gilbert Saporta, and Laura Trinchera, 45–57. Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cartography and Geographic Information Science.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2016. “Textbooks Have Been Getting Fern Sex Wrong, Paper Claims.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Long-Standing Financial Management Challenges Threaten the Agency’s Ability to Manage Its Programs. GAO-06-216T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schaff, Sharon. 2013. “What Characterizes and Impacts Student Transformational Learning in a Community College Work Placement Context.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, George Gene. 2010. “In One Sad Day, an Old World Artisan Confronts a New World.” New York Times, April 26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crane 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Crane 2012; Liu and Xiao 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Xiao 2015)
  • Three authors: (Echtay, Winkler, and Klingenberg 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dorrello et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleCartography and Geographic Information Science
AbbreviationCartogr. Geogr. Inf. Sci.
ISSN (print)1523-0406
ISSN (online)1545-0465
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Civil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles