How to format your references using the Cartography and Geographic Information Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cartography and Geographic Information Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grayson, Michelle. 2012. “Breast Cancer.” Nature 485 (7400): S49.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pedersen, Vivi Kathrine, and David Lundbek Egholm. 2013. “Glaciations in Response to Climate Variations Preconditioned by Evolving Topography.” Nature 493 (7431): 206–210.
A journal article with 3 authors
Madden, M. E. Elwood, R. J. Bodnar, and J. D. Rimstidt. 2004. “Jarosite as an Indicator of Water-Limited Chemical Weathering on Mars.” Nature 431 (7010): 821–823.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Schneider, Harald, Eric Schuettpelz, Kathleen M. Pryer, Raymond Cranfill, Susana Magallón, and Richard Lupia. 2004. “Ferns Diversified in the Shadow of Angiosperms.” Nature 428 (6982): 553–557.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gostick, Adrian, and Chester Elton. 2006. Führen Mit Möhren. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kutikhin, Anton G. 2013. Infectious Agents and Cancer. Edited by Arseniy E. Yuzhalin and Elena B. Brusina. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Viscusi, Gianluigi, Carlo Batini, and Massimo Mecella. 2010. “State Reconstruction.” In Information Systems for EGovernment: A Quality-of-Service Perspective, edited by Carlo Batini and Massimo Mecella, 75–98. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cartography and Geographic Information Science.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2016. “The 25 Highest-Paying Jobs In America In 2016.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Index Digest of the Published Decisions of the Comptroller General of the United States, Volumes 66-70, September 1991. 156871. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ilag, Greg M. 2014. “An Examination of the Entity Participants’ Collaborative Partnerships within the United Nations Global Compact.” Doctoral dissertation, Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, Mary. 2014. “Wozniacki Is Lining Up for New York Marathon.” New York Times, July 31.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grayson 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Grayson 2012; Pedersen and Egholm 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pedersen and Egholm 2013)
  • Three authors: (Madden, Bodnar, and Rimstidt 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Schneider et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleCartography and Geographic Information Science
AbbreviationCartogr. Geogr. Inf. Sci.
ISSN (print)1523-0406
ISSN (online)1545-0465
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Civil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles