How to format your references using the Cartography and Geographic Information Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cartography and Geographic Information Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, Amy. 2011. “Pharmacogenomics: Playing the Odds.” Nature 474 (7350): S9-10.
A journal article with 2 authors
Auer, S., and D. Frenkel. 2001. “Prediction of Absolute Crystal-Nucleation Rate in Hard-Sphere Colloids.” Nature 409 (6823): 1020–1023.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yu, Xuekui, Lei Jin, and Z. Hong Zhou. 2008. “3.88 A Structure of Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus by Cryo-Electron Microscopy.” Nature 453 (7193): 415–419.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhou, S., C. Burger, B. Chu, M. Sawamura, N. Nagahama, M. Toganoh, U. E. Hackler, H. Isobe, and E. Nakamura. 2001. “Spherical Bilayer Vesicles of Fullerene-Based Surfactants in Water: A Laser Light Scattering Study.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291 (5510): 1944–1947.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ansons, Alec M., and Helen Davis. 2008. Diagnosis and Management of Ocular Motility Disorders. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd.
An edited book
Hogeveen, H., and T. J. G. M. Lam, eds. 2012. Udder Health and Communication. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.
A chapter in an edited book
Becher, Thomas, Alessandro Broggio, and Andrea Ferroglia. 2015. “Resummation by RG Evolution.” In Introduction to Soft-Collinear Effective Theory, edited by Alessandro Broggio and Andrea Ferroglia, 57–63. Lecture Notes in Physics. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cartography and Geographic Information Science.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “The Future Is Bright, The Future Is … Quantum Dot Televisions.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1988. Pell Grants: Who Receives Them and What Would Larger Grants Cost? HRD-88-106BR. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Butts, Paula. 2017. “Green Roof Vegetable Production in Three Different Growth Media.” Doctoral dissertation, Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2016. “She Breaks the Mold, and Keeps On Giving.” New York Times, November 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Maxmen 2011; Auer and Frenkel 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Auer and Frenkel 2001)
  • Three authors: (Yu, Jin, and Zhou 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhou et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCartography and Geographic Information Science
AbbreviationCartogr. Geogr. Inf. Sci.
ISSN (print)1523-0406
ISSN (online)1545-0465
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Civil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

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