How to format your references using the Cartography and Geographic Information Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cartography and Geographic Information Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Umstadter, D. 2000. “Laser Light Splits Atom.” Nature 404 (6775): 239.
A journal article with 2 authors
Brucker, Robert M., and Seth R. Bordenstein. 2014. “Response to Comment on ‘The Hologenomic Basis of Speciation: Gut Bacteria Cause Hybrid Lethality in the Genus Nasonia.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 345 (6200): 1011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Carlson, Morgan E., Michael Hsu, and Irina M. Conboy. 2008. “Imbalance between PSmad3 and Notch Induces CDK Inhibitors in Old Muscle Stem Cells.” Nature 454 (7203): 528–532.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
McElroy, Michael B., Xi Lu, Chris P. Nielsen, and Yuxuan Wang. 2009. “Potential for Wind-Generated Electricity in China.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5946): 1378–1380.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chu, Pong P. 2011. Embedded SoPC Design with Nios II Processor and VHDL Examples. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Cowen, Robert, and Andreas M. Kazamias, eds. 2009. International Handbook of Comparative Education. Vol. 22. Springer International Handbooks of Education. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Bergqvist, Tuula. 2016. “The Everyday Life of Young Long-Term Unemployed in Sweden: Coping with Limited Participation and Feelings of Inferiority.” In Experiencing Long-Term Unemployment in Europe: Youth on the Edge, edited by Christian Lahusen and Marco Giugni, 107–138. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cartography and Geographic Information Science.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2016. “These Two New Exoplanets Might Be The Youngest Worlds We’ve Ever Found.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1987. [Comments on Customs Commissioner’s Alleged Unauthorized Use of Government Automobiles]. B-210555.22. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith, Charlotte. 2013. “The Affect of Acculturation on Obesity among Foreign-Born Asians Residing in the United States.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, Ben. 2017. “Master.” New York Times, January 5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Umstadter 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Umstadter 2000; Brucker and Bordenstein 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Brucker and Bordenstein 2014)
  • Three authors: (Carlson, Hsu, and Conboy 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (McElroy et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCartography and Geographic Information Science
AbbreviationCartogr. Geogr. Inf. Sci.
ISSN (print)1523-0406
ISSN (online)1545-0465
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Civil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

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