How to format your references using the Cartography and Geographic Information Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cartography and Geographic Information Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Farmelo, Graham. 2005. “Dirac’s Hidden Geometry.” Nature 437 (7057): 323.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tulaczyk, Slawek, and Saffia Hossainzadeh. 2011. “Geochemistry. Antarctica’s Deep Frozen ‘Lakes.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 331 (6024): 1524–1525.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashiro, Hideyuki, Naoko Isomura, and Kazuhiko Sakai. 2014. “Bloom of the Cyanobacterium Moorea Bouillonii on the Gorgonian Coral Annella Reticulata in Japan.” Scientific Reports 4 (August): 6032.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Späth, Gerald F., Lon-Fey Lye, Hiroaki Segawa, David L. Sacks, Salvatore J. Turco, and Stephen M. Beverley. 2003. “Persistence without Pathology in Phosphoglycan-Deficient Leishmania Major.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 301 (5637): 1241–1243.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dimon, Ron. 2013. Enterprise Performance Management Done Right. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
He, Bin, ed. 2013. Neural Engineering. 2nd ed. 2013. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Xu, Jinbo, Sheng Wang, and Jianzhu Ma. 2015. “Experiments and Results.” In Protein Homology Detection Through Alignment of Markov Random Fields: Using MRFalign, edited by Sheng Wang and Jianzhu Ma, 37–48. SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cartography and Geographic Information Science.

Blog post
Carpineti, Alfredo. 2016. “Juno Has Recorded What The Magnetosphere Of Jupiter Sounds Like.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Smart Highways: An Assessment of Their Potential to Improve Travel. PEMD-91-18. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Salazar, Alma. 2012. “Small School, Big Gains: A Case Study of Urban High School Reform.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2010. “The Place Is Rocking, and So Are the Knicks.” New York Times, December 16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Farmelo 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Farmelo 2005; Tulaczyk and Hossainzadeh 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tulaczyk and Hossainzadeh 2011)
  • Three authors: (Yamashiro, Isomura, and Sakai 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Späth et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCartography and Geographic Information Science
AbbreviationCartogr. Geogr. Inf. Sci.
ISSN (print)1523-0406
ISSN (online)1545-0465
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Civil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

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