How to format your references using the Cartography and Geographic Information Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cartography and Geographic Information Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Paul, Gregory S. 2010. “Comment on ‘Narrow Primary Feather Rachises in Confuciusornis and Archaeopteryx Suggest Poor Flight Ability.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 330 (6002): 320; author reply 320.
A journal article with 2 authors
Morton, John J. L., and Klaus Mølmer. 2015. “Quantum Information: Spin Memories in for the Long Haul.” Nature 517 (7533): 153–154.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shenvi, Neil, Sharani Roy, and John C. Tully. 2009. “Dynamical Steering and Electronic Excitation in NO Scattering from a Gold Surface.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5954): 829–832.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hutvágner, G., J. McLachlan, A. E. Pasquinelli, E. Bálint, T. Tuschl, and P. D. Zamore. 2001. “A Cellular Function for the RNA-Interference Enzyme Dicer in the Maturation of the Let-7 Small Temporal RNA.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 293 (5531): 834–838.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Duhon, Terri. 2012. How the Trading Floor Really Works. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
An edited book
Paradisi, Alberto, Michel Daoud Yacoub, Fabrício Lira Figueiredo, and Tania Tronco, eds. 2016. Long Term Evolution: 4G and Beyond. Telecommunications and Information Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kalašová, Alica, Jerzy Mikulski, and Simona Kubíková. 2016. “The Impact of Intelligent Transport Systems on an Accident Rate of the Chosen Part of Road Communication Network in the Slovak Republic.” In Challenge of Transport Telematics: 16th International Conference on Transport Systems Telematics, TST 2016, Katowice-Ustroń, Poland, March 16–19, 2016, Selected Papers, edited by Jerzy Mikulski, 47–58. Communications in Computer and Information Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cartography and Geographic Information Science.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2014. “Digital Metamaterials Get Us Closer to Invisibility Cloaks.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1991. Perkins Student Loans: Options That Could Make the Program More Financially Independent. HRD-92-6. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Washburn, Stephen J. 2006. “The Epiphytic Macrolichens of the Greater Cincinnati, Ohio, Metropolitan Area.” Doctoral dissertation, Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Otis, John. 2016. “Cancer Patient Is Hoping to Get Back to the Kitchen.” New York Times, December 18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Paul 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Paul 2010; Morton and Mølmer 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Morton and Mølmer 2015)
  • Three authors: (Shenvi, Roy, and Tully 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Hutvágner et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCartography and Geographic Information Science
AbbreviationCartogr. Geogr. Inf. Sci.
ISSN (print)1523-0406
ISSN (online)1545-0465
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Civil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles