How to format your references using the Cartography and Geographic Information Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cartography and Geographic Information Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kazazian, Haig H., Jr. 2004. “Mobile Elements: Drivers of Genome Evolution.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 303 (5664): 1626–1632.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kelley, Douglas H., and Nicholas T. Ouellette. 2013. “Emergent Dynamics of Laboratory Insect Swarms.” Scientific Reports 3 (January): 1073.
A journal article with 3 authors
Savaldi-Goldstein, Sigal, Charles Peto, and Joanne Chory. 2007. “The Epidermis Both Drives and Restricts Plant Shoot Growth.” Nature 446 (7132): 199–202.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zyryanova, Alisa F., Félix Weis, Alexandre Faille, Akeel Abo Alard, Ana Crespillo-Casado, Yusuke Sekine, Heather P. Harding, et al. 2018. “Binding of ISRIB Reveals a Regulatory Site in the Nucleotide Exchange Factor EIF2B.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 359 (6383): 1533–1536.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Celant, Giorgio, and Michel Broniatowski. 2016. Interpolation and Extrapolation Optimal Designs 1. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Azevedo, Roger, and Vincent Aleven, eds. 2013. International Handbook of Metacognition and Learning Technologies. Vol. 28. Springer International Handbooks of Education. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Thatcher, Robert W. 2010. “Higher-Order Network Reworking – New Findings.” In The Developmental Relations among Mind, Brain and Education: Essays in Honor of Robbie Case, edited by Michel Ferrari and Ljiljana Vuletic, 83–104. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cartography and Geographic Information Science.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2013. “New Invisibility Cloak Completely Conceals Objects.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Federal-Aid Highways: Improved Guidance Could Enhance States’ Use of Life-Cycle Cost Analysis in Pavement Selection. GAO-13-544. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nunez, Frank V. 2010. “A Study of the Application of the Concepts of Karen Horney in Leadership Development within the National Management Association of the Boeing Company.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, Mary. 2011. “New Pose On the Mat: The Sleuth.” New York Times, December 4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kazazian 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Kazazian 2004; Kelley and Ouellette 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kelley and Ouellette 2013)
  • Three authors: (Savaldi-Goldstein, Peto, and Chory 2007)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zyryanova et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleCartography and Geographic Information Science
AbbreviationCartogr. Geogr. Inf. Sci.
ISSN (print)1523-0406
ISSN (online)1545-0465
ScopeManagement of Technology and Innovation
Civil and Structural Engineering
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles