How to format your references using the Cardiovascular Pathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiovascular Pathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Birnbaum MJ. Signal transduction. Sweet conundrum. Science 2008;319:1348–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sachs MS, Geballe AP. Biochemistry. Sense and sensitivity--controlling the ribosome. Science 2002;297:1820–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Weymouth AJ, Hofmann T, Giessibl FJ. Quantifying molecular stiffness and interaction with lateral force microscopy. Science 2014;343:1120–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Takamoto DY, Aydil E, Zasadzinski JA, Ivanova AT, Schwartz DK, Yang T, et al. Stable ordering in Langmuir-Blodgett films. Science 2001;293:1292–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ralph D, Graham P. MMS: Technologies, Usage and Business Models. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
Figari R. Quantum Dynamics of a Particle in a Tracking Chamber. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Vukadin IK, Borovec K, Golub TL. Policing in Croatia: The Main Challenges on the Path to Democratic Policing. In: Meško G, Fields CB, Lobnikar B, Sotlar A, editors. Handbook on Policing in Central and Eastern Europe, New York, NY: Springer; 2013, p. 31–55.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiovascular Pathology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Scientists Develop Quick And Easy Method To Produce White Blood Cells From Skin Cells. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commuter Rail: Many Factors Influence Liability and Indemnity Provisions, and Options Exist to Facilitate Negotiations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Johnson EA. Factors associated with post-stroke depressive symptoms and quality of life. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Tanenhaus S. The Spirit of ’14. New York Times 2014:MM24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiovascular Pathology
AbbreviationCardiovasc. Pathol.
ISSN (print)1054-8807
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pathology and Forensic Medicine

Other styles