How to format your references using the Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Brockie B. GM cows face slaughter in multiple sclerosis experiment. Nature. 2001;411:402.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sattelberger AP, Johnson MJA. Chemistry. Uncovering the uranium-nitrogen triple bond. Science. 2012;337:652–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lin DY-W, Huang S, Chen J. Crystal structures of a polypeptide processing and secretion transporter. Nature. 2015;523:425–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wang X, Liao Q, Lu X, Li H, Xu Z, Fu H. Shape-engineering of self-assembled organic single microcrystal as optical microresonator for laser applications. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7011.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chassaing R. Digital Signal Processing and Applications with the C6713 and C6416 DSK. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
1. Tay LY, Lim CP, editors. Creating Holistic Technology-Enhanced Learning Experiences: Tales from a Future School in Singapore. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Proudler G, Chen L, Dalton C. TPM2 Requirements. In: Chen L, Dalton C, editors. Trusted Computing Platforms: TPM20 in Context. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. p. 131–50.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Ignore the IQ Test: Your Level of Intelligence is Not Fixed for Life [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Major ADP Systems: DOD Does Not Always Comply With Statutory Restriction on Obligations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Jan. Report No.: IMTEC-91-16.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. McPherson CA. Characterization of the neurogenic microenvironment in the mouse hippocampus following chemical-induced neuronal injury [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Strauss B. Knicks’ Rose May Be in Court, Not on It, When Team Begins Preseason. New York Times. 2016 Sep 16;B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
AbbreviationCardiovasc. Drugs Ther.
ISSN (print)0920-3206
ISSN (online)1573-7241
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles