How to format your references using the Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Evans RL. Geochemistry. Carbon in charge. Science. 2008;322:1338–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hupp JT, Poeppelmeier KR. Chemistry. Better living through nanopore chemistry. Science. 2005;309:2008–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Cardinale BJ, Palmer MA, Collins SL. Species diversity enhances ecosystem functioning through interspecific facilitation. Nature. 2002;415:426–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Gilbert B, Huang F, Zhang H, Waychunas GA, Banfield JF. Nanoparticles: strained and stiff. Science. 2004;305:651–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Suárez A. Analysis and Design of Autonomous Microwave Circuits. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
1. Damiani E, Yétongnon K, Schelkens P, Dipanda A, Legrand L, Chbeir R, editors. Signal Processing for Image Enhancement and Multimedia Processing. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Trawick P. Scarcity, Equity, and Transparency: General Principles for Successfully Governing the Water Commons. In: Wiegandt E, editor. Mountains: Sources of Water, Sources of Knowledge. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008. p. 43–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. Rosetta Witnesses The Origins of Meteors [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Agencies Need to Strengthen Oversight of Billions of Dollars in Operations and Maintenance Investments. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Oct. Report No.: GAO-13-87.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Wheeler TJ. Efficient construction of accurate multiple alignments and large-scale phylogenies [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tucson, AZ]: University of Arizona; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. After Celebrating Winning Bid, Russia Has Work Ahead. New York Times. 2007 Jul 6;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
AbbreviationCardiovasc. Drugs Ther.
ISSN (print)0920-3206
ISSN (online)1573-7241
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Pharmacology (medical)

Other styles