How to format your references using the Carbon Balance and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbon Balance and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Carlsson A. A paradigm shift in brain research. Science. 2001;294:1021–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Cresswell JE, Thompson HM. Comment on “A common pesticide decreases foraging success and survival in honey bees.” Science. 2012;337:1453; author reply 1453.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Chen W, Shimada S, Tanaka M. Synthesis and structure of formally hexavalent palladium complexes. Science. 2002;295:308–10.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Da Mesquita S, Louveau A, Vaccari A, Smirnov I, Cornelison RC, Kingsmore KM, et al. Functional aspects of meningeal lymphatics in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease. Nature. 2018;560:185–91.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Soustelle M. Handbook of Heterogenous Kinetics. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Gianin ER. Esercizi di finanza matematica. Sgarra C, editor. Milano: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nguyen LG, Nguyen HS. Searching for Reductive Attributes in Decision Tables. In: Peters JF, Skowron A, Ślȩzak D, Nguyen HS, Bazan JG, editors. Transactions on Rough Sets XIX. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. p. 51–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbon Balance and Management.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. New Simulation Helps Explain The Mysteries Of Supercooled Water [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Comments on Use of Funds from Vending Machines. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1954 Jun. Report No.: B-120257.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Luna M. A Case Study of the Influence of Multipurpose Spaces on Campus Life at an Institution of Art and Design [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Cowen T. In an Uber World, Fortune Favors the Freelancer. New York Times. 2015 Jun 27;BU6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbon Balance and Management
AbbreviationCarbon Balance Manag.
ISSN (online)1750-0680
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

Other styles