How to format your references using the Carbon Balance and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbon Balance and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Newman M. Applied mathematics. The power of design. Nature. 2000;405:412–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Lomakin IB, Steitz TA. The initiation of mammalian protein synthesis and mRNA scanning mechanism. Nature. 2013;500:307–11.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. George AM, Iñiguez J, Bellaiche L. Anomalous properties in ferroelectrics induced by atomic ordering. Nature. 2001;413:54–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Erdélyi Z, Sladecek M, Stadler L-M, Zizak I, Langer GA, Kis-Varga M, et al. Transient interface sharpening in miscible alloys. Science. 2004;306:1913–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Knudsen S. A Biologist’s Guide to Analysis of DNA Microarray Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1. Yang J, Ginige A, Mayr HC, Kutsche R-D, editors. Information Systems: Modeling, Development, and Integration: Third International United Information Systems Conference, UNISCON 2009, Sydney, Australia, April 21-24, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Bauche J, Bauche-Arnoult C, Peyrusse O. Modeling of ionic spectra. In: Bauche-Arnoult C, Peyrusse O, editors. Atomic Properties in Hot Plasmas: From Levels to Superconfigurations. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 135–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbon Balance and Management.

Blog post
1. Hale T. Beautiful Bubblegum Coral On The Seabed Of The Mariana Region [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Greater Coordination and a More Effective Policy Needed for International Telecommunications Facilities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1978 Mar. Report No.: CED-78-87.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Thompson T. Assessing the determinants of information technology adoption in Jamaica’s public sector using the technology acceptance model [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
1. Higgins A, Kramer AE. The Soviet Union Died, but Russia’s Use of Sexual Blackmail Lives On. New York Times. 2017 Jan 11;A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbon Balance and Management
AbbreviationCarbon Balance Manag.
ISSN (online)1750-0680
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

Other styles