How to format your references using the Carbon Balance and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbon Balance and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Engheta N. Circuits with light at nanoscales: optical nanocircuits inspired by metamaterials. Science. 2007;317:1698–702.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Des Marais DL, Rausher MD. Escape from adaptive conflict after duplication in an anthocyanin pathway gene. Nature. 2008;454:762–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Falnes PØ, Johansen RF, Seeberg E. AlkB-mediated oxidative demethylation reverses DNA damage in Escherichia coli. Nature. 2002;419:178–82.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wernsdorfer W, Aliaga-Alcalde N, Hendrickson DN, Christou G. Exchange-biased quantum tunnelling in a supramolecular dimer of single-molecule magnets. Nature. 2002;416:406–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Speight JG. Handbook of Petroleum Product Analysis. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
1. Watson RR, Zibadi S, editors. Bioactive Dietary Factors and Plant Extracts in Dermatology. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Nonell R, Medina I. Comparative Analysis of Institutional Incentives and Organisational Adjustment of Social Actors in Eight European Countries. In: Schofield N, Caballero G, editors. The Political Economy of Governance: Institutions, Political Performance and Elections. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 59–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbon Balance and Management.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. New Research Into Expansion Of The Universe May Upend Physics As We Know It [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/space/the-complex-mystery-that-surrounds-the-expansion-of-the-universe/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Department of Energy: Oil and Natural Gas Research and Development Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Nov. Report No.: GAO-08-190R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Child RJ. The evolution of BARREN INFLORESCENCE1 and related AUX/IAA genes in angiosperms [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Loomis G. Stretching the Boundaries of Opera. New York Times. 2012 Oct 16;0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbon Balance and Management
AbbreviationCarbon Balance Manag.
ISSN (online)1750-0680
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

Other styles