How to format your references using the Carbon Balance and Management citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Carbon Balance and Management. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Colman SM. Paleoclimate. A fresh look at glacial floods. Science. 2002;296:1251–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Yu XM, Luo L. Neuroscience. dSarm-ing axon degeneration. Science. 2012;337:418–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gormley WT Jr, Phillips D, Gayer T. The early years. Preschool programs can boost school readiness. Science. 2008;320:1723–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Li R, Mitra N, Gratkowski H, Vilaire G, Litvinov R, Nagasami C, et al. Activation of integrin alphaIIbbeta3 by modulation of transmembrane helix associations. Science. 2003;300:795–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Diver DA. Plasma Formulary for Physics, Astronomy, and Technology. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2013.
An edited book
1. Schramm J, editor. Advances and Technical Standards in Neurosurgery: Volume 41. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Lin S-H. Intelligent Internet Information Systems in Knowledge Acquisition: Techniques and Applications. In: Leondes CT, editor. Intelligent Knowledge-Based Systems: Business and Technology in the New Millennium. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2005. p. 110–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Carbon Balance and Management.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Why Are We Afraid Of Spiders? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/brain/why-are-we-afraid-spiders/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Progress Made at Department of Labor, But Key Systems at Risk. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998 Sep. Report No.: T-AIMD-98-303.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Takele T. Confinement Mechanisms in Quantum Chromodynamics [Doctoral dissertation]. [Cincinnati, OH]: University of Cincinnati; 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Oestreich JR. Where Youth Meets Musical Beauty. New York Times. 2017 Jul 18;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCarbon Balance and Management
AbbreviationCarbon Balance Manag.
ISSN (online)1750-0680
ScopeGeneral Earth and Planetary Sciences
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)
Global and Planetary Change
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law

Other styles