How to format your references using the Networks and Spatial Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Networks and Spatial Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Middelburg JJ (2015) Oceanography. Escape by dilution. Science 348:290
A journal article with 2 authors
Youk H, van Oudenaarden A (2009) Growth landscape formed by perception and import of glucose in yeast. Nature 462:875–879
A journal article with 3 authors
Johnson DDP, Stopka P, Knights S (2003) Sociology: The puzzle of human cooperation. Nature 421:911–2; discussion 912
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Athanasiou M, Smith R, Liu B, Wang T (2014) Room temperature continuous-wave green lasing from an InGaN microdisk on silicon. Sci Rep 4:7250

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mastro PF (2016) Plastics Product Design. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Parenti C (2010) Algebra lineare ed equazioni differenziali ordinarie. Springer, Milano
A chapter in an edited book
Nebel B (2012) Editorial. In: Prassler E, Zöllner M, Bischoff R, et al. (eds) Towards Service Robots for Everyday Environments: Recent Advances in Designing Service Robots for Complex Tasks in Everyday Environments. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 45–47

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Networks and Spatial Economics.

Blog post
Luntz S (2015) Ocean Acidity Measured From Space. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Diffusing Innovations: Implementing the Technology Transfer Act of 1986. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hunt SA (2012) A study of health care payment organizations’ culture and adaptability to revolutionary change. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J (2016) A Test From the Political Comedy Gods. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Middelburg 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Youk and van Oudenaarden 2009; Middelburg 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Youk and van Oudenaarden 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Athanasiou et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNetworks and Spatial Economics
AbbreviationNetw. Spat. Econ.
ISSN (print)1566-113X
ISSN (online)1572-9427
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications

Other styles