How to format your references using the Networks and Spatial Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Networks and Spatial Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dodds PN (2010) Plant science. Genome evolution in plant pathogens. Science 330:1486–1487
A journal article with 2 authors
Burt D, Pourquie O (2003) Genetics. Chicken genome--science nuggets to come soon. Science 300:1669
A journal article with 3 authors
Dragert G, Wang K, James TS (2001) A silent slip event on the deeper Cascadia subduction interface. Science 292:1525–1528
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Terrak M, Kerff F, Langsetmo K, et al (2004) Structural basis of protein phosphatase 1 regulation. Nature 429:780–784

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety (1994) Guidelines for Implementing Process Safety Management Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Squires V, Hua L, Li G, Zhang D (eds) (2010) Towards Sustainable Use of Rangelands in North-West China. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Burkhardt CE, Leventhal JJ (2008) Time-Dependent States in One Dimension. In: Leventhal JJ (ed) Foundations of Quantum Physics. Springer, New York, NY, pp 1–29

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Networks and Spatial Economics.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) The Most Incredible Microscope Images Of 2016 Reveal A Beautiful, Hidden Universe. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Science And Technology: Air Force’s Planning Process Meets Statutory Requirement. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nauman T (2009) Digital soil-landscape classification for soil survey using ASTER satellite and digital elevation data in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, Rashbaum WK (2017) Before Times Sq. Crash, A String of Legal Issues And a Fall Into Paranoia. New York Times A21

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dodds 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Burt and Pourquie 2003; Dodds 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Burt and Pourquie 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Terrak et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleNetworks and Spatial Economics
AbbreviationNetw. Spat. Econ.
ISSN (print)1566-113X
ISSN (online)1572-9427
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications

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