How to format your references using the Networks and Spatial Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Networks and Spatial Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zeilinger A (2000) QUANTUM COMPUTING: Quantum Entangled Bits Step Closer to IT. Science 289:405–406
A journal article with 2 authors
Li S, Wang J (2014) A compact trench-assisted multi-orbital-angular-momentum multi-ring fiber for ultrahigh-density space-division multiplexing (19 rings × 22 modes). Sci Rep 4:3853
A journal article with 3 authors
Diemand J, Moore B, Stadel J (2005) Earth-mass dark-matter haloes as the first structures in the early Universe. Nature 433:389–391
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Levinson RT, Olatoye OO, Randles EG, et al (2013) Role of mutations in the cellular internalization of amyloidogenic light chains into cardiomyocytes. Sci Rep 3:1278

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murti Y, Vijayan C (2014) Essentials of Nonlinear Optics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Golash D (ed) (2010) Freedom of Expression in a Diverse World. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Choi J-W, Shin H-K, Lee J-S, Cheon Y-J (2012) Development of LEON3-FT Processor Emulator for Flight Software Development and Test. In: Thaung KS (ed) Advanced Information Technology in Education. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 33–40

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Networks and Spatial Economics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Wasps Use Facial Recognition To Identify Intruders. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Mass Transit Grants: Noncompliance and Misspent Funds by Two Grantees in UMTA’s New York Region. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dimick KE (2009) Response to Intervention research to practice: Exploring a school in transition—a case study. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Burghardt LF (2006) The Legacies They Left. New York Times 14LI6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zeilinger 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Zeilinger 2000; Li and Wang 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Li and Wang 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Levinson et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleNetworks and Spatial Economics
AbbreviationNetw. Spat. Econ.
ISSN (print)1566-113X
ISSN (online)1572-9427
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications

Other styles