How to format your references using the Networks and Spatial Economics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Networks and Spatial Economics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cyranoski D (2009) Japan election sparks science pledges. Nature 460:938
A journal article with 2 authors
Ottino JM, Lueptow RM (2008) Materials science. On mixing and demixing. Science 319:912–913
A journal article with 3 authors
Beaber JW, Hochhut B, Waldor MK (2004) SOS response promotes horizontal dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. Nature 427:72–74
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ranjani V, Janeček S, Chai KP, et al (2014) Protein engineering of selected residues from conserved sequence regions of a novel Anoxybacillus α-amylase. Sci Rep 4:5850

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Niles JD (2016) Old English Literature. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Meinhardt F, Klassen R (eds) (2007) Microbial Linear Plasmids. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
de Bergh C, Schaller EL, Brown ME, et al (2013) The Ices on Transneptunian Objects and Centaurs. In: Gudipati MS, Castillo-Rogez J (eds) The Science of Solar System Ices. Springer, New York, NY, pp 107–146

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Networks and Spatial Economics.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Molecules Harness Sun’s Energy, Even in Absence of Sunlight. In: IFLScience.’s-energy-even-absence-sunlight/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Transportation Security Administration’s Processes for Designating and Releasing Sensitive Security Information. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ficchi G (2017) A Qualitative Inquiry: Parental Approaches and Expectations, What Role Does Disability Play? Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2010) For Knicks’ Lee, a Grandfather, Mentor and Pal. New York Times B9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Ottino and Lueptow 2008; Cyranoski 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ottino and Lueptow 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Ranjani et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleNetworks and Spatial Economics
AbbreviationNetw. Spat. Econ.
ISSN (print)1566-113X
ISSN (online)1572-9427
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Networks and Communications

Other styles