How to format your references using the BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hellemans A. Beating the European brain drain. Nature. 2001;414:4–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Mappes J, Lindström L. Ecology. How did the cuckoo get its polymorphic plumage? Science. 2012;337:532–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Fay JC, Wyckoff GJ, Wu C-I. Testing the neutral theory of molecular evolution with genomic data from Drosophila. Nature. 2002;415:1024–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Dawson MA, Bannister AJ, Göttgens B, Foster SD, Bartke T, Green AR, et al. JAK2 phosphorylates histone H3Y41 and excludes HP1alpha from chromatin. Nature. 2009;461:819–22.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Burrell DB. Towards a Jewish-Christian-Muslim Theology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
1. Finn A, Curtis N, Pollard AJ, editors. Hot Topics in Infection and Immunity in Children VI. New York, NY: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Rowley CK. Duncan Black (1908–1991). In: Schneider FG, editor. Readings in Public Choice and Constitutional Political Economy. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. p. 77–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Do Women Really Go For “Bad Boys’? Here’s The Science That Settles The Question. IFLScience. 2016. Accessed 30 Oct 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Immature Software Acquisition Processes Increase FAA System Acquisition Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Shelby KR. Systems Engineering Knowledge Asset (SEKA) Management for Higher Performing Engineering Teams: People, Process and Technology toward Effective Knowledge-Workers. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Belson K, Pilon M. Marathon Organizers Offer Refund or Future Race. New York Times. 2012;:B18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Pharmacology and Toxicology
AbbreviationBMC Pharmacol. Toxicol.
ISSN (online)2050-6511

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