How to format your references using the BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Müller A. Chemistry. The beauty of symmetry. Science. 2003;300:749–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Danku Z, Kun F. Creep rupture as a non-homogeneous Poissonian process. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2688.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Shim S-B, Imboden M, Mohanty P. Synchronized oscillation in coupled nanomechanical oscillators. Science. 2007;316:95–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lambert F, Delmonte B, Petit JR, Bigler M, Kaufmann PR, Hutterli MA, et al. Dust-climate couplings over the past 800,000 years from the EPICA Dome C ice core. Nature. 2008;452:616–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Wright D. Using Commercial Contracts. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1. Boronenkov V. Fundamentals of Arc Spraying: Physical and Chemical Regularities. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ford SJ, Ferriani S, Probert DR. Overcoming the Innovation Barrier: A Search-Selection Model of Breakthrough Innovation in Large Firms. In: Pfeffermann N, Minshall T, Mortara L, editors. Strategy and Communication for Innovation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 41–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology.

Blog post
1. Carpineti A. Artificial Magnetic Shield Could Help In Terraforming Mars. IFLScience. 2017.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Trust Fund: All States Received More Funding Than They Contributed in Highway Taxes from 2005 to 2009. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Yang SJ. Adapting Korean Cinderella Folklore as Fairy Tales for Children. Doctoral dissertation. University of Louisiana; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Billard M. The View From the Back Row. New York Times. 2016;:D7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBMC Pharmacology and Toxicology
AbbreviationBMC Pharmacol. Toxicol.
ISSN (online)2050-6511
Scope

Other styles