How to format your references using the Ecological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Butler, D., 2000. France plans marine research port at Brest. Nature 405, 498.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, G.M., Oshima, J., 2000. Lessons from human progeroid syndromes. Nature 408, 263–266.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bannard, O., Kraman, M., Fearon, D.T., 2009. Secondary replicative function of CD8+ T cells that had developed an effector phenotype. Science 323, 505–509.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, F., Podell, E.R., Zaug, A.J., Yang, Y., Baciu, P., Cech, T.R., Lei, M., 2007. The POT1-TPP1 telomere complex is a telomerase processivity factor. Nature 445, 506–510.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bersuker, I.B., 2010. Electronic Structure and Properties of Transition Metal Compounds. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Bian, F., Xie, Y. (Eds.), 2015. Geo-Informatics in Resource Management and Sustainable Ecosystem: Second International Conference, GRMSE 2014, Ypsilanti, MI, USA, October 3-5, 2014. Proceedings, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Shao, L., Lu, J., Shi, M., 2012. Miscellaneous Analogs, in: Lu, J., Shi, M. (Eds.), Chemical Transformations of Vinylidenecyclopropanes, SpringerBriefs in Molecular Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 55–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Engineering.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2016. How Poor NHS Testing And Antibiotic Use Is Creating Super-Strength Cystitis [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/how-poor-nhs-testing-and-antibiotic-use-is-creating-super-strength-cystitis/ (accessed 10.30.18).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1980. NASA Should Provide the Congress Complete Cost Information on the Space Telescope Program (No. PSAD-80-15). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Carey, S.A., 2013. Assessing the presence of antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus in reclaimed water used for spray irrigation (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E., 1999. F.Y.I. New York Times 142.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Butler, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Butler, 2000; Martin and Oshima, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Oshima, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Engineering
AbbreviationEcol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0925-8574
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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