How to format your references using the Ecological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D., 2000. Collaborations prepare to untangle the circuitry of the brain. Nature 406, 545–546.
A journal article with 2 authors
Slee, E.A., Lu, X., 2013. Requirement for phosphorylation of P53 at Ser312 in suppression of chemical carcinogenesis. Sci. Rep. 3, 3105.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, K., Zhang, Y., Lee, S.E., 2008. Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATM orthologue suppresses break-induced chromosome translocations. Nature 454, 543–546.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kurz, W.A., Dymond, C.C., Stinson, G., Rampley, G.J., Neilson, E.T., Carroll, A.L., Ebata, T., Safranyik, L., 2008. Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change. Nature 452, 987–990.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Römer, H., 2004. Theoretical Optics. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG.
An edited book
Duan, L., 2013. Cognitive Virtual Network Operator Games, SpringerBriefs in Computer Science. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Han, X., Hibbard, L.S., Willcut, V., 2010. An Efficient Inverse-Consistent Diffeomorphic Image Registration Method for Prostate Adaptive Radiotherapy, in: Madabhushi, A., Dowling, J., Yan, P., Fenster, A., Abolmaesumi, P., Hata, N. (Eds.), Prostate Cancer Imaging. Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Intervention: International Workshop, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2010, Beijing,China, September 24, 2010. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 34–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. A New Generation Of Weird-Looking Space Suits Will Take Us To Mars [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Federal Research: Opportunities Exist to Improve the Management and Oversight of Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (No. GAO-09-15). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
LaPorte, M., 2017. Depression and Rumination as a Predictor for Types of Substances Abused (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Oestreich, J.R., 2017. Getting Inside the Mind of Bach. New York Times C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gershon, 2000; Slee and Lu, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Slee and Lu, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Kurz et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Engineering
AbbreviationEcol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0925-8574
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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