How to format your references using the Ecological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brumfiel, G., 2003. Bush seeks to beef up US nuclear-weapons arsenal. Nature 422, 101–102.
A journal article with 2 authors
Luksza, M., Lässig, M., 2014. A predictive fitness model for influenza. Nature 507, 57–61.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhai, M., Zhao, G., Zhang, Q., 2002. Is the Dongwanzi complex an Archean ophiolite? Science 295, 923.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mollner, A.K., Valluvadasan, S., Feng, L., Sprague, M.K., Okumura, M., Milligan, D.B., Bloss, W.J., Sander, S.P., Martien, P.T., Harley, R.A., McCoy, A.B., Carter, W.P.L., 2010. Rate of gas phase association of hydroxyl radical and nitrogen dioxide. Science 330, 646–649.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Held, G., 2001. Bulletproofing TCP/IP-based Windows NT/2000 Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Welfens, P.J.J., Weske, M. (Eds.), 2007. Digital Economic Dynamics: Innovations, Networks and Regulations. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Mundbrod, N., Kolb, J., Reichert, M., 2013. Towards a System Support of Collaborative Knowledge Work, in: Rosa, M.L., Soffer, P. (Eds.), Business Process Management Workshops: BPM 2012 International Workshops, Tallinn, Estonia, September 3, 2012. Revised Papers, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Scientists May Have Detected Echoes From A Pre-Collision Earth [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Residential Treatment Programs: Concerns Regarding Abuse and Death in Certain Programs for Troubled Youth (No. GAO-08-146T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Osifalujo, A., 2015. Code-switching in Working African Americans: Internalized Racism, Minority Status, and Organizational Commitment (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L., 2014. Loving Trees, Even the Messy Ones. New York Times D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Brumfiel, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Brumfiel, 2003; Luksza and Lässig, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Luksza and Lässig, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Mollner et al., 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Engineering
AbbreviationEcol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0925-8574
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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