How to format your references using the Ecological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Benner, S.A., 2003. Synthetic biology: Act natural. Nature 421, 118.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cirac, J.I., Zoller, P., 2000. A scalable quantum computer with ions in an array of microtraps. Nature 404, 579–581.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bintanja, R., van de Wal, R.S.W., Oerlemans, J., 2005. Modelled atmospheric temperatures and global sea levels over the past million years. Nature 437, 125–128.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Song, X., Zhu, C.-H., Doan, C., Xie, T., 2002. Germline stem cells anchored by adherens junctions in the Drosophila ovary niches. Science 296, 1855–1857.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McBain, G.D., 2012. Theory of Lift. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Zabransky, S. (Ed.), 2013. Caring for Children Born Small for Gestational Age. Springer Healthcare Ltd., Tarporley.
A chapter in an edited book
Rajčáni, J., Kúdelová, M., 2007. Murid Herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4): An Animal Model for Human Gammaherpesvirus Research, in: Minarovits, J., Gonczol, E., Valyi-Nagy, T. (Eds.), Latency Strategies of Herpesviruses. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp. 102–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Watching Fish Is Good For Your Health [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Securities Regulation: Hostile Corporate Takeovers: Synopses of Thirty-Two Attempts (No. GGD-88-48FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hess, J.P., 2012. Exploring the Challenges of Training and Developing Millennials in the Business Environment (Doctoral dissertation). Northcentral University, Scottsdale, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D., 1990. STEAL THIS REVIEW. New York Times 719.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Benner, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Benner, 2003; Cirac and Zoller, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cirac and Zoller, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Song et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Engineering
AbbreviationEcol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0925-8574
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

Other styles