How to format your references using the Ecological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bignami, G.F., 2000. A 1,000-year chain of thinkers. Nature 404, 227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sansom, R.S., Wills, M.A., 2013. Fossilization causes organisms to appear erroneously primitive by distorting evolutionary trees. Sci. Rep. 3, 2545.
A journal article with 3 authors
Poolman, B., Geertsma, E.R., Slotboom, D.-J., 2007. Biochemistry. A missing link in membrane protein evolution. Science 315, 1229–1231.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Clarke, H.F., Dalley, J.W., Crofts, H.S., Robbins, T.W., Roberts, A.C., 2004. Cognitive inflexibility after prefrontal serotonin depletion. Science 304, 878–880.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS), 2011. Supplemental Proceedings. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Wrycza, S. (Ed.), 2015. Information Systems: Development, Applications, Education: 8th SIGSAND/PLAIS EuroSymposium 2015, Gdansk, Poland, September 25, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Karachentsev, I.D., Karachentseva, V., Huchtmeier, W., Makarov, D., Kaisin, S., Sharina, M., Makarova, L., 2008. Mining the Local Volume, in: Jerjen, H., Koribalski, B.S. (Eds.), Galaxies in the Local Volume, Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 21–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Engineering.

Blog post
Hamilton, K., 2017. The Largest Living Thing On Earth Is Mostly Hidden From View [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Digital Broadcast Television Transition: Estimated Cost of Supporting Set-Top Boxes to Help Advance the DTV Transition (No. GAO-05-258T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gobas, M., 2012. Affiliate users policy: Solution to multiple ball field users in the city of Artesia (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2017. Car Insurers Facing Rush Of Claims After Storm. New York Times B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bignami, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Bignami, 2000; Sansom and Wills, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sansom and Wills, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Clarke et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Engineering
AbbreviationEcol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0925-8574
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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