How to format your references using the Ecological Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ecological Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Allen, P.A., 2008. From landscapes into geological history. Nature 451, 274–276.
A journal article with 2 authors
Clark, C.M., Tilman, D., 2008. Loss of plant species after chronic low-level nitrogen deposition to prairie grasslands. Nature 451, 712–715.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hamilton, V.E., Christensen, P.R., Bandfield, J.L., 2003. Planetary science: Volcanism or aqueous alteration on Mars? Nature 421, 711–2; discussion 712-3.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sil, A.K., Maeda, S., Sano, Y., Roop, D.R., Karin, M., 2004. IkappaB kinase-alpha acts in the epidermis to control skeletal and craniofacial morphogenesis. Nature 428, 660–664.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smirnov, B.M., 2010. Cluster Processes in Gases and Plasmas. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Lemon, O., Pietquin, O. (Eds.), 2012. Data-Driven Methods for Adaptive Spoken Dialogue Systems: Computational Learning for Conversational Interfaces. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Amdam, S.H., 2016. The Dangers of having Fun – Doing Production Work in School, in: Erstad, O., Kumpulainen, K., Mäkitalo, Å., Schrøder, K.C., Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt, P., Jóhannsdóttir, T. (Eds.), Learning across Contexts in the Knowledge Society. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 85–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ecological Engineering.

Blog post
Hale, T., 2015. Bizarre Photo Appears To Show Snake EATING Its Way Out Of Another Snake [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Aviation and the Environment: FAA’s and NASA’s Research and Development Plans for Noise Reduction Are Aligned but the Prospects of Achieving Noise Reduction Goals Are Uncertain (No. GAO-08-384). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cook, E.J., 2013. Older Americans Act of 1965, Title III: A policy analysis (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman, W., 2015. Colombia Military Accused of Deception on Deaths. New York Times A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Allen, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Allen, 2008; Clark and Tilman, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Clark and Tilman, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Sil et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleEcological Engineering
AbbreviationEcol. Eng.
ISSN (print)0925-8574
ScopeEnvironmental Engineering
Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
Nature and Landscape Conservation

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