How to format your references using the Cancer Microenvironment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Microenvironment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wilczek F (2013) Physics: The enigmatic electron. Nature 498:31–32
A journal article with 2 authors
Dorfman KE, Mukamel S (2014) Indistinguishability and correlations of photons generated by quantum emitters undergoing spectral diffusion. Sci Rep 4:3996
A journal article with 3 authors
Patkowski K, Spirko V, Szalewicz K (2009) On the elusive twelfth vibrational state of beryllium dimer. Science 326:1382–1384
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kobatake S, Takami S, Muto H, et al (2007) Rapid and reversible shape changes of molecular crystals on photoirradiation. Nature 446:778–781

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blair TH (2016) Energy Production Systems Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Rempala GA (2008) Symmetric Functionals on Random Matrices and Random Matchings Problems. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Kadmiel M, Fritz-Six KL, Caron KM (2012) Understanding RAMPs Through Genetically Engineered Mouse Models. In: Spielman WS, Parameswaran N (eds) RAMPs. Springer US, New York, NY, pp 49–60

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Microenvironment.

Blog post
Luntz S (2017) Scientists Have Figured Out Why Some Rocks Can Float For Years. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1992) Untangling the Stafford Student Loan Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Packman T (2017) The Effects of Eccentricity on Rectangular Hollow Structural Section Stress in Moment Connections Loaded Out-of-Plane. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Rothenberg B (2017) Returning to Form, Nadal and Dimitrov End Grand Slam Droughts. New York Times B8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Microenvironment
AbbreviationCancer Microenviron.
ISSN (print)1875-2292
ISSN (online)1875-2284
ScopeCancer Research

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