How to format your references using the Cancer Microenvironment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Microenvironment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nelson B (2008) Benefits blues. Nature 454:132–133
A journal article with 2 authors
Jutzi M, Asphaug E (2011) Forming the lunar farside highlands by accretion of a companion moon. Nature 476:69–72
A journal article with 3 authors
Durniak KJ, Bailey S, Steitz TA (2008) The structure of a transcribing T7 RNA polymerase in transition from initiation to elongation. Science 322:553–557
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Cohen I, Li H, Hougland JL, et al (2001) Using selective withdrawal to coat microparticles. Science 292:265–267

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Han CC, Akcasu AZ (2011) Scattering and Dynamics of Polymers. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte Ltd, Singapore
An edited book
Wadkar S (2014) Pro Apache Hadoop, Second Edition. Apress, Berkeley, CA
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang D (2012) Chinese Primary School English Curriculum Reform. In: Ruan J, Leung CB (eds) Perspectives on Teaching and Learning English Literacy in China. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 67–83

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Microenvironment.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) Why Are Some People Left-Handed? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1995) Weather Forecasting: Unmet Needs and Unknown Costs Warrant Reassessment of Observing System Plans. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Desam JR (2017) Effective Nodal Placement in Overlay Networks Using Complexity Theory. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rojas R, Southall A (2015) 5 From Baruch College Face Murder Charges in 2013 Fraternity Hazing. New York Times A18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Microenvironment
AbbreviationCancer Microenviron.
ISSN (print)1875-2292
ISSN (online)1875-2284
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles