How to format your references using the Cancer Microenvironment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Microenvironment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thorne KS (2012) Classical black holes: the nonlinear dynamics of curved spacetime. Science 337:536–538
A journal article with 2 authors
Surani A, Smith J (2007) Obituary: Anne McLaren (1927-2007). Nature 448:764–765
A journal article with 3 authors
Smith MA, Brandt J, Shadmehr R (2000) Motor disorder in Huntington’s disease begins as a dysfunction in error feedback control. Nature 403:544–549
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Maiolino R, Schneider R, Oliva E, et al (2004) A supernova origin for dust in a high-redshift quasar. Nature 431:533–535

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam MR, Islam JS, Zatzman GM, et al (2015) The Greening of Pharmaceutical Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Cebulla M (2008) Object-Oriented Technology. ECOOP 2007 Workshop Reader: ECOOP 2007 Workshops, Berlin, Germany, July 30-31, 2007, Final Reports. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Singh M, Anandan SK, Malik S, et al (2013) Business Connectivity Services. In: Anandan SK, Malik S, Sistla S, Wright S (eds) Pro SharePoint 2013 Business Intelligence Solutions. Apress, Berkeley, CA, pp 187–245

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Microenvironment.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Glassfrogs Hatch Early When They’re Abandoned. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2016) TSA Acquisitions: Opportunities Exist to Enhance Efficiency of Screening Technology Test and Evaluation. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Szurgyi AA (2012) Leadership competencies required of Army officers to counter the Improvised Explosive Device threat. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2010) The Accidental Mom. New York Times BR23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Microenvironment
AbbreviationCancer Microenviron.
ISSN (print)1875-2292
ISSN (online)1875-2284
ScopeCancer Research

Other styles