How to format your references using the Cancer Cell International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cancer Cell International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ganem D. Virology. The X files--one step closer to closure. Science. 2001;294:2299–300.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Hughes R, Nordholt J. Physics. Refining quantum cryptography. Science. 2011;333:1584–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Carpi F, Bauer S, De Rossi D. Materials science. Stretching dielectric elastomer performance. Science. 2010;330:1759–61.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kaya S, Schlesinger D, Yamamoto S, Newberg JT, Bluhm H, Ogasawara H, et al. Highly compressed two-dimensional form of water at ambient conditions. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1074.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Cumming DJ. Venture Capital. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
1. Holmes TP, Prestemon JP, Abt KL, editors. The Economics of Forest Disturbances: Wildfires, Storms, and Invasive Species. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Fu Y. ROP GTPases and the Cytoskeleton. In: Yalovsky S, Baluška F, Jones A, editors. Integrated G Proteins Signaling in Plants. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 91–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cancer Cell International.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Gene Cernan, The Last Person To Set Foot On The Moon, Dies At 82 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Aging Federal Laboratories Need Repairs and Upgrades. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Sep. Report No.: T-RCED-93-71.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Small CR. An investigation on the effect(s) of different modes of intervention for weight management on HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol production among United States veterans [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. The Court As Mr. Fix-It? New York Times. 2010 May 1;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCancer Cell International
AbbreviationCancer Cell Int.
ISSN (online)1475-2867
ScopeCancer Research

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