How to format your references using the Boundary Value Problems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Boundary Value Problems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gray, R.: Evolution. Pushing the time barrier in the quest for language roots. Science. 309, 2007–2008 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Thompson, W.G., Goldstein, S.L.: Open-system coral ages reveal persistent suborbital sea-level cycles. Science. 308, 401–404 (2005)
A journal article with 3 authors
Chandrappa, G.T., Steunou, N., Livage, J.: Materials chemistry: macroporous crystalline vanadium oxide foam. Nature. 416, 702 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Jung, H., In, C., Choi, H., Lee, H.: Anisotropy modeling of terahertz metamaterials: polarization dependent resonance manipulation by meta-atom cluster. Sci. Rep. 4, 5217 (2014)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernandez-Maloigne, C., Robert-Inacio, F., Macaire, L.: Digital Color. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA (2012)
An edited book
Cigna, A.A., Durante, M. eds: Radiation Risk Estimates in Normal and Emergency Situations. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2006)
A chapter in an edited book
Chen, D.-G., Chen, X., Lin, F.: Solving Probabilistic Discrete Event Systems with Moore–Penrose Generalized Inverse Matrix Method to Extract Longitudinal Characteristics from Cross-Sectional Survey Data. In: Chen, D.-G. (din) and Wilson, J. (eds.) Innovative Statistical Methods for Public Health Data. pp. 81–94. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2015)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Boundary Value Problems.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: When are we Most Likely to Catch Viral Diseases?,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Automatic Data Processing Problems at the Social Security Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1981)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garcia, R.D.: Designing an autonomous helicopter testbed: From conception through implementation, (2008)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Justices Ready to Answer Detainee Rights Question, (2007)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBoundary Value Problems
AbbreviationBound. Value Probl.
ISSN (online)1687-2770
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory

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