How to format your references using the Boundary Value Problems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Boundary Value Problems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Xie, T.: Tunable polymer multi-shape memory effect. Nature. 464, 267–270 (2010)
A journal article with 2 authors
Ort, D.R., Long, S.P.: Botany. Limits on yields in the Corn Belt. Science. 344, 484–485 (2014)
A journal article with 3 authors
Gormley, W.T., Jr, Phillips, D., Gayer, T.: The early years. Preschool programs can boost school readiness. Science. 320, 1723–1724 (2008)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dulub, O., Batzilln, M., Solovev, S., Loginova, E., Alchagirov, A., Madey, T.E., Diebold, U.: Electron-induced oxygen desorption from the TiO2(011)-2x1 surface leads to self-organized vacancies. Science. 317, 1052–1056 (2007)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hansen, S., Pedersen-Bjergaard, S., Rasmussen, K.: Introduction to Pharmaceutical Chemical Analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK (2011)
An edited book
Hildebrandt, M., Gaakeer, J. eds: Human Law and Computer Law: Comparative Perspectives. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2013)
A chapter in an edited book
Schwille, P., Ries, J.: Principles and Applications of Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS). In: Bartolo, B.D. and Collins, J. (eds.) Biophotonics: Spectroscopy, Imaging, Sensing, and Manipulation. pp. 63–85. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht (2011)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Boundary Value Problems.

Blog post
Hamilton, K.: Four New Spider Species Found In Southern Africa,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: NASA Budget: Potential Shortfalls in Funding NASA’s 5-Year Plan. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1992)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brawley, K.: A nutrition and physical activity curriculum for pregnant women, (2010)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, G.: Celebrating South Africa and a Job Done Well, (2010)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleBoundary Value Problems
AbbreviationBound. Value Probl.
ISSN (online)1687-2770
ScopeAlgebra and Number Theory

Other styles